By-Laws - Akamai Technologies Inc.


                              AMENDED AND RESTATED

                                     BY-LAWS

                                       OF

                            AKAMAI TECHNOLOGIES, INC.


                            ARTICLE 1 - STOCKHOLDERS


     1.1  PLACE OF MEETINGS. All meetings of stockholders shall be held at such
place within or without the State of Delaware as may be designated from time to
time by the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board or the President or,
if not so designated, at the registered office of the corporation.

     1.2  ANNUAL MEETING. The annual meeting of stockholders for the election of
directors and for the transaction of such other business as may properly be
brought before the meeting shall be held on a date to be fixed by the Board of
Directors, the Chairman of the Board or the President (which date shall not be a
legal holiday in the place where the meeting is to be held) at the time and
place to be fixed by the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board or the
President and stated in the notice of the meeting. If no annual meeting is held
in accordance with the foregoing provisions, the Board of Directors shall cause
the meeting to be held as soon thereafter as convenient. If no annual meeting is
held in accordance with the foregoing provisions, a special meeting may be held
in lieu of the annual meeting, and any action taken at that special meeting
shall have the same effect as if it had been taken at the annual meeting, and in
such case all references in these By-Laws to the annual meeting of the
stockholders shall be deemed to refer to such special meeting.

     1.3  SPECIAL MEETINGS. Special meetings of stockholders may be called at
any time only by the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the President or the
Board of Directors. Business transacted at any special meeting of stockholders
shall be limited to matters relating to the purpose or purposes stated in the
notice of meeting.

     1.4  NOTICE OF MEETINGS. Except as otherwise provided by law, written
notice of each meeting of stockholders, whether annual or special, shall be
given not less than ten nor more than 60 days before the date of the meeting to
each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting. The notices of all meetings
shall state the place, date and hour of the meeting. The notice of a special
meeting shall state, in addition, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting
is called. If mailed, notice is given when deposited in the United States mail,
postage prepaid, directed to the stockholder at the stockholder's address as it
appears on the records of the corporation.





     1.5  VOTING LIST. The officer who has charge of the stock ledger of the
corporation shall prepare, at least ten days before every meeting of
stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the
meeting, arranged in alphabetical order, and showing the address of each
stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder.
Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose
germane to the meeting, during ordinary business hours, for a period of at least
ten days prior to the meeting, at a place within the city where the meeting is
to be held. The list shall also be produced and kept at the time and place of
the meeting during the whole time of the meeting, and may be inspected by any
stockholder who is present.

     1.6  QUORUM. Except as otherwise provided by law, the Certificate of
Incorporation or these By-Laws, the holders of a majority of the shares of the
capital stock of the corporation issued and outstanding and entitled to vote at
the meeting, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a
quorum for the transaction of business.

     1.7  ADJOURNMENTS. Any meeting of stockholders may be adjourned to any
other time and to any other place at which a meeting of stockholders may be held
under these By-Laws by the stockholders present or represented at the meeting
and entitled to vote, although less than a quorum, or, if no stockholder is
present, by any officer entitled to preside at or to act as Secretary of such
meeting. It shall not be necessary to notify any stockholder of any adjournment
of less than 30 days if the time and place of the adjourned meeting are
announced at the meeting at which adjournment is taken, unless after the
adjournment a new record date is fixed for the adjourned meeting. At the
adjourned meeting, the corporation may transact any business which might have
been transacted at the original meeting.

     1.8  VOTING AND PROXIES. Each stockholder shall have one vote for each
share of stock entitled to vote held of record by such stockholder and a
proportionate vote for each fractional share so held, unless otherwise provided
by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws. Each stockholder of
record entitled to vote at a meeting of stockholders, or to express consent or
dissent to corporate action in writing without a meeting, may vote or express
such consent or dissent in person or may authorize another person or persons to
vote or act for him by proxy executed in writing (or in such other manner
permitted by the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware) by the
stockholder or his authorized agent and delivered to the Secretary of the
corporation. No such proxy shall be voted or acted upon after three years from
the date of its execution, unless the proxy expressly provides for a longer
period.

     1.9  ACTION AT MEETING. When a quorum is present at any meeting, the
holders of a majority of the stock present or represented and voting on a matter
(or if there are two or more classes of stock entitled to vote as separate
classes, then in the case of each


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such class, the holders of a majority of the stock of that class present or
represented and voting on a matter) shall decide any matter to be voted upon by
the stockholders at such meeting, except when a different vote is required by
express provision of law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws. Any
election by stockholders shall be determined by a plurality of the votes cast by
the stockholders entitled to vote at the election.

     1.10 NOMINATION OF DIRECTORS. Only persons who are nominated in accordance
with the following procedures shall be eligible for election as directors.
Nomination for election to the Board of Directors of the corporation at a
meeting of stockholders may be made by the Board of Directors or by any
stockholder of the corporation entitled to vote for the election of directors at
such meeting who complies with the notice procedures set forth in this Section
1.10. Such nominations, other than those made by or on behalf of the Board of
Directors, shall be made by timely notice in writing to the Secretary of the
corporation. To be timely, a stockholder's notice must be delivered to, or
mailed and received by, the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the
corporation not less than 70 days nor more than 90 days prior to the first
anniversary of the preceding year's annual meeting; provided, however, that (i)
in the event that the date of the annual meeting is advanced by more than 20
days, or delayed by more than 70 days, from such anniversary date, notice by the
stockholder to be timely must be so delivered or received not earlier than the
ninetieth day prior to such annual meeting and not later than the close of
business on the later of the seventieth day prior to such annual meeting or the
tenth day following the day on which notice of the date of such annual meeting
was mailed or public disclosure of the date of such annual meeting was made,
whichever first occurs, and (ii) with respect to the annual meeting of
stockholders of the corporation to be held in the year 2000, to be timely, a
stockholder's notice must be so received not earlier than the ninetieth day
prior to such annual meeting and not later than the close of business on the
later of (A) the sixtieth day prior to such annual meeting and (B) the tenth day
following the day on which notice of the date of such annual meeting was mailed
or public disclosure of the date of such annual meeting was made, whichever
first occurs. A stockholder's notice to the Secretary shall set forth (a) as to
each proposed nominee (i) the name, age, business address and, if known,
residence address of each such nominee, (ii) the principal occupation or
employment of each such nominee, (iii) the number of shares of stock of the
corporation which are beneficially owned by each such nominee, and (iv) any
other information concerning the nominee that must be disclosed as to nominees
in proxy solicitations pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Securities Exchange
Act of 1934, as amended (including such person's written consent to be named as
a nominee and to serve as a director if elected); and (b) as to the stockholder
giving the notice (i) the name and address, as they appear on the corporation's
books, of such stockholder and (ii) the class and number of shares of the
corporation which are beneficially owned by such stockholder. In addition, to be
effective, the stockholder's notice must be accompanied by the written consent
of the proposed nominee to serve as a director if elected. The corporation may
require any proposed nominee to furnish such other information as may reasonably
be required by


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the corporation to determine the eligibility of such proposed nominee to serve
as a director of the corporation.

     The chairman of the meeting may, if the facts warrant, determine and
declare to the meeting that a nomination was not made in accordance with the
foregoing procedure, and if he should so determine, he shall so declare to the
meeting and the defective nomination shall be disregarded.

     1.11 NOTICE OF BUSINESS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. At an annual meeting of the
stockholders, only such business shall be conducted as shall have been properly
brought before the meeting. To be properly brought before an annual meeting,
business must be (a) specified in the notice of meeting (or any supplement
thereto) given by or at the direction of the Board of Directors, (b) otherwise
brought before the meeting by or at the direction of the Board of Directors, or
(c) otherwise properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder. For
business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder, if
such business relates to the election of directors of the corporation, the
procedures in Section 1.10 must be complied with. If such business relates to
any other matter, the stockholder must have given timely notice thereof in
writing to the Secretary. To be timely, a stockholder's notice must be delivered
to, or mailed and received by, the Secretary at the principal executive offices
of the corporation not less than 70 days nor more than 90 days prior to the
first anniversary of the preceding year's annual meeting; provided, however,
that (i) in the event that the date of the annual meeting is advanced by more
than 20 days, or delayed by more than 70 days, from such anniversary date,
notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so delivered or received not
earlier than the ninetieth day prior to such annual meeting and not later than
the close of business on the later of the seventieth day prior to such annual
meeting or the tenth day following the day on which notice of the date of such
annual meeting was mailed or public disclosure of the date of such annual
meeting was made, whichever first occurs, and (ii) with respect to the annual
meeting of stockholders of the corporation to be held in the year 2000, to be
timely, a stockholder's notice must be so received not earlier than the
ninetieth day prior to such annual meeting and not later than the close of
business on the later of (A) the sixtieth day prior to such annual meeting and
(B) the tenth day following the day on which notice of the date of such annual
meeting was mailed or public disclosure of the date of such annual meeting was
made, whichever first occurs. A stockholder's notice to the Secretary shall set
forth as to each matter the stockholder proposes to bring before the annual
meeting (a) a brief description of the business desired to be brought before the
annual meeting and the reasons for conducting such business at the annual
meeting, (b) the name and address, as they appear on the corporation's books, of
the stockholder proposing such business, (c) the class and number of shares of
the corporation which are beneficially owned by the stockholder, and (d) any
material interest of the stockholder in such business. Notwithstanding anything
in these By-Laws to the contrary, no business shall be conducted at any annual
meeting except in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 1.11
and except that any stockholder proposal which complies with Rule 14a-


                                       4



8 of the proxy rules (or any successor provision) promulgated under the
Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and is to be included in the
corporation's proxy statement for an annual meeting of stockholders shall be
deemed to comply with the requirements of this Section 1.11.

     The chairman of the meeting shall, if the facts warrant, determine and
declare to the meeting that business was not properly brought before the meeting
in accordance with the provisions of this Section 1.11, and if he should so
determine, the chairman shall so declare to the meeting that any such business
not properly brought before the meeting shall not be transacted.

     1.12 ACTION WITHOUT MEETING. Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate
of Incorporation, any action required or permitted to be taken by stockholders
for or in connection with any corporate action may be taken without a meeting,
without prior notice and without a vote, if a consent or consents in writing,
setting forth the action so taken, shall be signed by the holders of outstanding
stock having not less than the minimum number of votes that would be necessary
to authorize or take such action at a meeting at which all shares entitled to
vote thereon were present and voted and shall be delivered to the corporation by
delivery to its registered office in Delaware by hand or certified or registered
mail, return receipt requested, to its principal place of business or to an
officer or agent of the corporation having custody of the book in which
proceedings of meetings of stockholders are recorded. Each such written consent
shall bear the date of signature of each stockholder who signs the consent. No
written consent shall be effective to take the corporate action referred to
therein unless written consents signed by a number of stockholders sufficient to
take such action are delivered to the corporation in the manner specified in
this paragraph within sixty days of the earliest dated consent so delivered.

     If action is taken by consent of stockholders and in accordance with the
foregoing, there shall be filed with the records of the meetings of stockholders
the writing or writings comprising such consent.

     If action is taken by less than unanimous consent of stockholders, prompt
notice of the taking of such action without a meeting shall be given to those
who have not consented in writing and a certificate signed and attested to by
the Secretary of the corporation that such notice was given shall be filed with
the records of the meetings of stockholders.

     In the event that the action which is consented to is such as would have
required the filing of a certificate under any provision of the General
Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, if such action had been voted upon by
the stockholders at a meeting thereof, the certificate filed under such
provision shall state, in lieu of any statement required by such provision
concerning a vote of stockholders, that written consent has


                                       5



been given under Section 228 of said General Corporation Law and that written
notice has been given as provided in such Section 228.

     Notwithstanding the foregoing, if at any time the corporation shall have a
class of stock registered pursuant to the provisions of the Securities Exchange
Act of 1934, as amended, for so long as such class is registered, any action by
the stockholders of such class must be taken at an annual or special meeting of
stockholders and may not be taken by written consent.

     1.13 ORGANIZATION. The Chairman of the Board, or in his absence the Vice
Chairman of the Board designated by the Chairman of the Board, or the President,
in the order named, shall call meetings of the stockholders to order, and shall
act as chairman of such meeting; provided, however, that the Board of Directors
may appoint any stockholder to act as chairman of any meeting in the absence of
the Chairman of the Board. The Secretary of the corporation shall act as
secretary at all meetings of the stockholders; but in the absence of the
Secretary at any meeting of the stockholders, the presiding officer may appoint
any person to act as secretary of the meeting.

                              ARTICLE 2 - DIRECTORS

     2.1  GENERAL POWERS. The business and affairs of the corporation shall be
managed by or under the direction of a Board of Directors, who may exercise all
of the powers of the corporation except as otherwise provided by law, the
Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws. In the event of a vacancy in the
Board of Directors, the remaining directors, except as otherwise provided by
law, may exercise the powers of the full Board until the vacancy is filled.

     2.2  NUMBER; ELECTION AND QUALIFICATION. The number of directors which
shall constitute the whole Board of Directors shall be determined by resolution
of the Board of Directors, but in no event shall be less than three. The number
of directors may be decreased at any time and from time to time by a majority of
the directors then in office, but only to eliminate vacancies existing by reason
of the death, resignation, removal or expiration of the term of one or more
directors. The directors shall be elected at the annual meeting of stockholders
by such stockholders as have the right to vote on such election. Directors need
not be stockholders of the corporation.

     2.3  CLASSES OF DIRECTORS. The Board of Directors shall be and is divided
into three classes: Class I, Class II and Class III. No one class shall have
more than one director more than any other class. If a fraction is contained in
the quotient arrived at by dividing the designated number of directors by three,
then, if such fraction is one-third, the extra director shall be a member of
Class I, and if such fraction is two-thirds, one of the extra directors shall be
a member of Class I and one of the extra


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directors shall be a member of Class II, unless otherwise provided from time to
time by resolution adopted by the Board of Directors.

     2.4  TERMS OF OFFICE. Each director shall serve for a term ending on the
date of the third annual meeting following the annual meeting at which such
director was elected; provided, that each initial director in Class I shall
serve for a term ending on the date of the annual meeting of stockholders in
2000; each initial director in Class II shall serve for a term ending on the
date of the annual meeting of stockholders in 2001; and each initial director in
Class III shall serve for a term ending on the date of the annual meeting of
stockholders in 2002; and provided further, that the term of each director shall
be subject to the election and qualification of his successor and to his earlier
death, resignation or removal.

     2.5  ALLOCATION OF DIRECTORS AMONG CLASSES IN THE EVENT OF INCREASES OR
DECREASES IN THE NUMBER OF DIRECTORS. In the event of any increase or decrease
in the authorized number of directors, (i) each director then serving as such
shall nevertheless continue as a director of the class of which he or she is a
member and (ii) the newly created or eliminated directorships resulting from
such increase or decrease shall be apportioned by the Board of Directors among
the three classes of directors so as to ensure that no one class has more than
one director more than any other class. To the extent possible, consistent with
the foregoing rule, any newly created directorships shall be added to those
classes whose terms of office are to expire at the latest dates following such
allocation, and any newly eliminated directorships shall be subtracted from
those classes whose terms of offices are to expire at the earliest dates
following such allocation, unless otherwise provided from time to time by
resolution adopted by the Board of Directors.

     2.6  VACANCIES. Any vacancy in the Board of Directors, however occurring,
including a vacancy resulting from an enlargement of the size of the Board,
shall be filled only by vote of a majority of the directors then in office,
although less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining director. A director elected
to fill a vacancy shall be elected for the unexpired term of his predecessor in
office, and a director chosen to fill a position resulting from an increase in
the number of directors shall hold office until the next election of the class
for which such director shall have been chosen, subject to the election and
qualification of his successor and to his earlier death, resignation or removal.

     2.7  RESIGNATION. Any director may resign by delivering his written
resignation to the corporation at its principal office or to the President or
Secretary. Such resignation shall be effective upon receipt unless it is
specified to be effective at some other time or upon the happening of some other
event.

     2.8  REGULAR MEETINGS. Regular meetings of the Board of Directors may be
held without notice at such time and place, either within or without the State
of Delaware,


                                       7



as shall be determined from time to time by the Board of Directors; provided
that any director who is absent when such a determination is made shall be given
notice of the determination. A regular meeting of the Board of Directors may be
held without notice immediately after and at the same place as the annual
meeting of stockholders.

     2.9  SPECIAL MEETINGS. Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be
held at any time and place, within or without the State of Delaware, designated
in a call by the Chairman of the Board, President, two or more directors, or by
one director in the event that there is only a single director in office.

     2.10 NOTICE OF SPECIAL MEETINGS. Notice of any special meeting of directors
shall be given to each director by the Secretary or by the officer or one of the
directors calling the meeting. Notice shall be duly given to each director (i)
by giving notice to such director in person or by telephone at least 24 hours in
advance of the meeting, (ii) by sending a telegram, telecopy, telex or
electronic mail message, or delivering written notice by hand, to his last known
business or home address at least 24 hours in advance of the meeting, or (iii)
by mailing written notice to his last known business or home address at least 72
hours in advance of the meeting. A notice or waiver of notice of a meeting of
the Board of Directors need not specify the purposes of the meeting.

     2.11 MEETINGS BY TELEPHONE CONFERENCE CALLS. Directors or any members of
any committee designated by the directors may participate in a meeting of the
Board of Directors or such committee by means of conference telephone or similar
communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the
meeting can hear each other, and participation by such means shall constitute
presence in person at such meeting.

     2.12 QUORUM. A majority of the total number of the whole Board of Directors
shall constitute a quorum at all meetings of the Board of Directors. In the
event one or more of the directors shall be disqualified to vote at any meeting,
then the required quorum shall be reduced by one for each such director so
disqualified; provided, however, that in no case shall less than one-third (1/3)
of the number so fixed constitute a quorum. In the absence of a quorum at any
such meeting, a majority of the directors present may adjourn the meeting from
time to time without further notice other than announcement at the meeting,
until a quorum shall be present.

     2.13 ACTION AT MEETING. At any meeting of the Board of Directors at which a
quorum is present, the vote of a majority of those present shall be sufficient
to take any action, unless a different vote is specified by law, the Certificate
of Incorporation or these By-Laws.

     2.14 ACTION BY CONSENT. Any action required or permitted to be taken at any
meeting of the Board of Directors or of any committee of the Board of Directors
may be taken without a meeting, if all members of the Board or committee, as the
case may be,


                                       8



consent to the action in writing, and the written consents are filed with the
minutes of proceedings of the Board or committee.

     2.15 REMOVAL. Directors of the corporation may be removed only for cause by
the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of the shares of the
capital stock of the corporation issued and outstanding and entitled to vote.

     2.16 COMMITTEES. The Board of Directors may designate one or more
committees, each committee to consist of one or more of the directors of the
corporation. The Board may designate one or more directors as alternate members
of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any
meeting of the committee. In the absence or disqualification of a member of a
committee, the member or members of the committee present at any meeting and not
disqualified from voting, whether or not he or they constitute a quorum, may
unanimously appoint another member of the Board of Directors to act at the
meeting in the place of any such absent or disqualified member. Any such
committee, to the extent provided in the resolution of the Board of Directors
and subject to the provisions of the General Corporation Law of the State of
Delaware, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board
of Directors in the management of the business and affairs of the corporation
and may authorize the seal of the corporation to be affixed to all papers which
may require it. Each such committee shall keep minutes and make such reports as
the Board of Directors may from time to time request. Except as the Board of
Directors may otherwise determine, any committee may make rules for the conduct
of its business, but unless otherwise provided by the directors or in such
rules, its business shall be conducted as nearly as possible in the same manner
as is provided in these By-laws for the Board of Directors.

     2.17 COMPENSATION OF DIRECTORS. Directors may be paid such compensation for
their services and such reimbursement for expenses of attendance at meetings as
the Board of Directors may from time to time determine. No such payment shall
preclude any director from serving the corporation or any of its parent or
subsidiary corporations in any other capacity and receiving compensation for
such service.

                              ARTICLE 3 - OFFICERS

     3.1  ENUMERATION. The officers of the corporation shall consist of a
President, a Secretary, a Treasurer and such other officers with such other
titles as the Board of Directors shall determine, including a Chairman of the
Board, a Vice Chairman of the Board, and one or more Vice Presidents, Assistant
Treasurers and Assistant Secretaries. The Board of Directors may appoint such
other officers as it may deem appropriate.


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     3.2  ELECTION. The President, Treasurer and Secretary shall be elected
annually by the Board of Directors at its first meeting following the annual
meeting of stockholders. Other officers may be appointed by the Board of
Directors at such meeting or at any other meeting.

     3.3  QUALIFICATION. No officer need be a stockholder. Any two or more
offices may be held by the same person.

     3.4  TENURE. Except as otherwise provided by law, by the Certificate of
Incorporation or by these By-Laws, each officer shall hold office until his
successor is elected and qualified, unless a different term is specified in the
vote choosing or appointing him, or until his earlier death, resignation or
removal.

     3.5  RESIGNATION AND REMOVAL. Any officer may resign by delivering his or
her written resignation to the corporation at its principal office or to the
President or Secretary. Such resignation shall be effective upon receipt unless
it is specified to be effective at some other time or upon the happening of some
other event.

     Any officer may be removed at any time, with or without cause, by vote of a
majority of the entire number of directors then in office.

     Except as the Board of Directors may otherwise determine, no officer who
resigns or is removed shall have any right to any compensation as an officer for
any period following his resignation or removal, or any right to damages on
account of such removal, whether his compensation be by the month or by the year
or otherwise, unless such compensation is expressly provided in a duly
authorized written agreement with the corporation.

     3.6  VACANCIES. The Board of Directors may fill any vacancy occurring in
any office for any reason and may, in its discretion, leave unfilled for such
period as it may determine any offices other than those of President, Treasurer
and Secretary. Each such successor shall hold office for the unexpired term of
his predecessor and until his successor is elected and qualified, or until his
earlier death, resignation or removal.

     3.7  CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD AND VICE CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD. The Board of
Directors may appoint a Chairman of the Board. If the Board of Directors
appoints a Chairman of the Board, he shall perform such duties and possess such
powers as are assigned to him by the Board of Directors. Unless otherwise
provided by the Board of Directors, he shall preside at all meetings of the
stockholders and at all meetings of the Board of Directors. If the Board of
Directors appoints a Vice Chairman of the Board, he shall, in the absence or
disability of the Chairman of the Board, perform the duties and exercise the
powers of the Chairman of the Board and shall perform such other duties and
possess such other powers as may from time to time be vested in him by the Board
of Directors.


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     3.8  PRESIDENT. The President shall, subject to the direction of the Board
of Directors, have general charge and supervision of the business of the
corporation. Unless the Board of Directors has designated the Chairman of the
Board or another officer as Chief Executive Officer, the President shall be the
Chief Executive Officer of the corporation. The President shall perform such
other duties and shall have such other powers as the Board of Directors may from
time to time prescribe.

     3.9  VICE PRESIDENTS. Any Vice President shall perform such duties and
possess such powers as the Board of Directors or the President may from time to
time prescribe. In the event of the absence, inability or refusal to act of the
President, the Vice President (or if there shall be more than one, the Vice
Presidents in the order determined by the Board of Directors) shall perform the
duties of the President and when so performing shall have all the powers of and
be subject to all the restrictions upon the President. The Board of Directors
may assign to any Vice President the title of Executive Vice President, Senior
Vice President or any other title selected by the Board of Directors.

     3.10 SECRETARY AND ASSISTANT SECRETARIES. The Secretary shall perform such
duties and shall have such powers as the Board of Directors or the President may
from time to time prescribe. In addition, the Secretary shall perform such
duties and have such powers as are incident to the office of the secretary,
including without limitation the duty and power to give notices of all meetings
of stockholders and special meetings of the Board of Directors, to attend all
meetings of stockholders and the Board of Directors and keep a record of the
proceedings, to maintain a stock ledger and prepare lists of stockholders and
their addresses as required, to be custodian of corporate records and the
corporate seal and to affix and attest to the same on documents.

     Any Assistant Secretary shall perform such duties and possess such powers
as the Board of Directors, the President or the Secretary may from time to time
prescribe. In the event of the absence, inability or refusal to act of the
Secretary, the Assistant Secretary (or if there shall be more than one, the
Assistant Secretaries in the order determined by the Board of Directors) shall
perform the duties and exercise the powers of the Secretary.

     In the absence of the Secretary or any Assistant Secretary at any meeting
of stockholders or directors, the person presiding at the meeting shall
designate a temporary secretary to keep a record of the meeting.

     3.11 TREASURER AND ASSISTANT TREASURERS. The Treasurer shall perform such
duties and shall have such powers as may from time to time be assigned to him or
her by the Board of Directors or the President. In addition, the Treasurer shall
perform such duties and have such powers as are incident to the office of
treasurer, including without limitation the duty and power to keep and be
responsible for all funds and securities of the corporation, to deposit funds of
the corporation in depositories selected in accordance with these By-Laws, to
disburse such funds as ordered by the Board of


                                       11



Directors, to make proper accounts of such funds, and to render as required by
the Board of Directors statements of all such transactions and of the financial
condition of the corporation.

     The Assistant Treasurers shall perform such duties and possess such powers
as the Board of Directors, the President or the Treasurer may from time to time
prescribe. In the event of the absence, inability or refusal to act of the
Treasurer, the Assistant Treasurer (or if there shall be more than one, the
Assistant Treasurers in the order determined by the Board of Directors) shall
perform the duties and exercise the powers of the Treasurer.

     3.12 SALARIES. Officers of the corporation shall be entitled to such
salaries, compensation or reimbursement as shall be fixed or allowed from time
to time by the Board of Directors.

                            ARTICLE 4 - CAPITAL STOCK

     4.1  ISSUANCE OF STOCK. Unless otherwise voted by the stockholders and
subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, the whole or any
part of any unissued balance of the authorized capital stock of the corporation
or the whole or any part of any unissued balance of the authorized capital stock
of the corporation held in its treasury may be issued, sold, transferred or
otherwise disposed of by vote of the Board of Directors in such manner, for such
consideration and on such terms as the Board of Directors may determine.

     4.2  CERTIFICATES OF STOCK. Every holder of stock of the corporation shall
be entitled to have a certificate, in such form as may be prescribed by law and
by the Board of Directors, certifying the number and class of shares owned by
him or her in the corporation. Each such certificate shall be signed by, or in
the name of the corporation by, the Chairman or Vice Chairman, if any, of the
Board of Directors, or the President or a Vice President, and the Treasurer or
an Assistant Treasurer, or the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the
corporation. Any or all of the signatures on the certificate may be a facsimile.

     Each certificate for shares of stock which are subject to any restriction
on transfer pursuant to the Certificate of Incorporation, the By-Laws,
applicable securities laws or any agreement among any number of stockholders or
among such holders and the corporation shall have conspicuously noted on the
face or back of the certificate either the full text of the restriction or a
statement of the existence of such restriction.

     4.3  TRANSFERS. Except as otherwise established by rules and regulations
adopted by the Board of Directors, and subject to applicable law, shares of
stock may be transferred on the books of the corporation by the surrender to the
corporation or its


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transfer agent of the certificate representing such shares properly endorsed or
accompanied by a written assignment or power of attorney properly executed, and
with such proof of authority or the authenticity of signature as the corporation
or its transfer agent may reasonably require. Except as may be otherwise
required by law, by the Certificate of Incorporation or by these By-Laws, the
corporation shall be entitled to treat the record holder of stock as shown on
its books as the owner of such stock for all purposes, including the payment of
dividends and the right to vote with respect to such stock, regardless of any
transfer, pledge or other disposition of such stock until the shares have been
transferred on the books of the corporation in accordance with the requirements
of these By-Laws.

     4.4  LOST, STOLEN OR DESTROYED CERTIFICATES. The corporation may issue a
new certificate of stock in place of any previously issued certificate alleged
to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, upon such terms and conditions as the
Board of Directors may prescribe, including the presentation of reasonable
evidence of such loss, theft or destruction and the giving of such indemnity as
the Board of Directors may require for the protection of the corporation or any
transfer agent or registrar.

     4.5  RECORD DATE. The Board of Directors may fix in advance a date as a
record date for the determination of the stockholders entitled to notice of or
to vote at any meeting of stockholders, or entitled to receive payment of any
dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights in respect of any
change, conversion or exchange of stock, or for the purpose of any other lawful
action. Such record date shall not be more than 60 nor less than ten days before
the date of such meeting, nor more than 60 days prior to any other action to
which such record date relates.

     If no record date is fixed, the record date for determining stockholders
entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the
close of business on the day before the day on which notice is given, or, if
notice is waived, at the close of business on the day before the day on which
the meeting is held. The record date for determining stockholders for any other
purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board of
Directors adopts the resolution relating to such purpose.

     A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote
at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting;
provided, however, that the Board of Directors may fix a new record date for the
adjourned meeting.


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                         ARTICLE 5 - GENERAL PROVISIONS

     5.1  FISCAL YEAR. Except as from time to time otherwise designated by the
Board of Directors, the fiscal year of the corporation shall begin on the first
day of January in each year and end on the last day of December in each year.

     5.2  CORPORATE SEAL. The corporate seal shall be in such form as shall be
approved by the Board of Directors.

     5.3  WAIVER OF NOTICE. Whenever any notice whatsoever is required to be
given by law, by the Certificate of Incorporation or by these By-Laws, a waiver
of such notice either in writing signed by the person entitled to such notice or
such person's duly authorized attorney, or by telegraph, cable or any other
available method, whether before, at or after the time stated in such waiver, or
the appearance of such person or persons at such meeting in person or by proxy,
shall be deemed equivalent to such notice.

     5.4  VOTING OF SECURITIES. Except as the directors may otherwise designate,
the President or Treasurer may waive notice of, and act as, or appoint any
person or persons to act as, proxy or attorney-in-fact for this corporation
(with or without power of substitution) at any meeting of stockholders or
shareholders of any other corporation or organization, the securities of which
may be held by this corporation.

     5.5  EVIDENCE OF AUTHORITY. A certificate by the Secretary, or an Assistant
Secretary, or a temporary Secretary, as to any action taken by the stockholders,
directors, a committee or any officer or representative of the corporation shall
as to all persons who rely on the certificate in good faith be conclusive
evidence of such action.

     5.6  CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION. All references in these By-Laws to the
Certificate of Incorporation shall be deemed to refer to the Certificate of
Incorporation of the corporation, as amended and in effect from time to time.

     5.7  TRANSACTIONS WITH INTERESTED PARTIES. No contract or transaction
between the corporation and one or more of the directors or officers, or between
the corporation and any other corporation, partnership, association or other
organization in which one or more of the directors or officers are directors or
officers, or have a financial interest, shall be void or voidable solely for
this reason, or solely because the director or officer is present at or
participates in the meeting of the Board of Directors or a committee of the
Board of Directors which authorizes the contract or transaction or solely
because his or their votes are counted for such purpose, if:

          (1)  The material facts as to his relationship or interest and as to
     the contract or transaction are disclosed or are known to the Board of
     Directors or the committee, and the Board or committee in good faith
     authorizes the contract or transaction by the affirmative votes of a
     majority of the disinterested directors, even though the disinterested
     directors be less than a quorum;


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          (2)  The material facts as to his relationship or interest and as to
     the contract or transaction are disclosed or are known to the stockholders
     entitled to vote thereon, and the contract or transaction is specifically
     approved in good faith by vote of the stockholders; or

          (3)  The contract or transaction is fair as to the corporation as of
     the time it is authorized, approved or ratified, by the Board of Directors,
     a committee of the Board of Directors, or the stockholders.

     Common or interested directors may be counted in determining the presence
of a quorum at a meeting of the Board of Directors or of a committee which
authorizes the contract or transaction.

     5.8  SEVERABILITY. Any determination that any provision of these By-Laws is
for any reason inapplicable, illegal or ineffective shall not affect or
invalidate any other provision of these By-Laws.

     5.9  PRONOUNS. All pronouns used in these By-Laws shall be deemed to refer
to the masculine, feminine or neuter, singular or plural, as the identity of the
person or persons may require.

                             ARTICLE 6 - AMENDMENTS

     6.1  BY THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS. These By-Laws may be altered, amended or
repealed or new by-laws may be adopted by the affirmative vote of a majority of
the directors present at any regular or special meeting of the Board of
Directors at which a quorum is present.

     6.2  BY THE STOCKHOLDERS. Except as otherwise provided in Section 6.3,
these ByLaws may be altered, amended or repealed or new by-laws may be adopted
by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the shares of the
capital stock of the corporation issued and outstanding and entitled to vote at
any regular or special meeting of stockholders, provided notice of such
alteration, amendment, repeal or adoption of new by-laws shall have been stated
in the notice of such regular or special meeting.

     6.3  CERTAIN PROVISIONS. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the
Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws, and notwithstanding the fact that
a lesser percentage may be specified by law, the affirmative vote of the holders
of at least seventy-five percent (75%) of the shares of the capital stock of the
corporation issued and outstanding and entitled to vote shall be required to
amend or repeal, or to adopt any provision inconsistent with Section 1.3,
Section 1.10, Section 1.11, Section 1.12, Section 1.13, Article 2 or Article 6
of these By-Laws.


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