By-Laws - AsiaInfo Holdings, Inc.


 
                                    BY-LAWS

                                      OF

                            ASIAINFO HOLDINGS, INC.

                              (the 'Corporation')


                                   ARTICLE I

                                    OFFICES

    Section 1.  Registered Office.  The registered office of the Corporation
shall be located in the State of Delaware at CorpAmerica, Inc., 30 Old Rudnick
Lane, Dover, Kent County, Delaware 19901.

    Section 2.  Other Offices.  The Corporation may also have offices at such
other places both within and without the State of Delaware as the Board of
Directors may from time to time determine.

                                  ARTICLE II

                            MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS

    Section 1.  Time and Place of Meetings.  Meetings of the stockholders for
the election of directors or for any other purpose shall be held at such time
and place, either within or without the State of Delaware as shall be designated
from time to time by the Board of Directors and stated in the notice of the
meeting or in a duly executed waiver of notice thereof.

    Section 2.  Annual Meetings.  The Annual Meetings of Stockholders shall be
held on such date and at such time as shall be designated from time to time by
the Board of Directors and stated in the notice of the meeting, at which
meetings the stockholders shall elect by a plurality vote a Board of Directors,
and transact such other business as may properly be brought before the meeting.
Written notice of the Annual Meeting stating the place, date and hour of the
meeting shall be given to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting not
less than ten nor more than sixty days before the date of the meeting.
 
     Section 3.  Special Meetings.  Unless otherwise prescribed by law or by the
Certificate of Incorporation, Special Meetings of Stockholders, for any purpose
or purposes, may be called by either (i) the Chairman, if there be one, or (ii)
the President, (iii) any Vice President, if there be one, (iv) the Secretary or
(v) any Assistant Secretary, if there be one, and shall be called by any such
officer at the request in writing of a majority of the Board of Directors or at
the request in writing of stockholders owning a majority of the capital stock of
the Corporation issued and outstanding and entitled to vote.  Such request shall
state the purpose or purposes of the proposed meeting.  Written notice of a
Special Meeting stating the place, date and hour of the meeting and the purpose
or purposes for which the meeting is called shall be given not less than ten or
more than sixty days before the date of the meeting to each stockholder entitled
to vote at such meeting.

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     Section 4.  Quorum.  Except as otherwise provided by law or by the
Certificate of Incorporation, the holders of a majority of the capital stock
issued and outstanding and entitled to vote thereat, present in person or
represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum at all meetings of the
stockholders for the transaction of business.  If, however, such quorum shall
not be present or represented at any meeting of the stockholders, the
stockholders entitled to vote thereat, present in person or represented by
proxy, shall have power to adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice
other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum shall be present or
represented.  At such adjourned meeting at which a quorum shall be present or
represented, any business may be transacted which might have been transacted at
the meeting as originally noticed.  If the adjournment is for more than thirty
days, or if after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for the adjourned
meeting, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder
entitled to vote at the meeting.

     Section 5.  Voting.  Unless otherwise required by law, the Certificate of
Incorporation or these By-Laws, any question brought before any meeting of
stockholders shall be decided by the vote of the holders of a majority of the
stock represented and entitled to vote thereat.  Each stockholder represented at
a meeting of stockholders shall be entitled to cast one vote for each share of
the capital stock entitled to vote thereat held by such stockholder.  Such votes
may be cast in person or by proxy but no proxy shall be voted on or after three
years from its date, unless such proxy provides for a longer period.  The Board
of Directors, in its discretion, or the officer of the Corporation presiding at
a meeting of stockholders, in his discretion, may require that any votes cast at
such meeting shall be cast by written ballot.

      Section 6.  Consent of Stockholders in Lieu of Meeting.  Unless otherwise
provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, any action required or permitted
to be taken at any Annual or Special Meeting of Stockholders of the Corporation,
may be taken without a meeting, without prior notice and without a vote, if a
consent in writing, setting forth the action so taken, shall be signed by the
holders of outstanding stock having not less than the minimum number of votes
that would be necessary to authorize or take such action at a meeting at which
all shares entitled to vote thereon were present and voted.  Prompt notice of
the taking of the corporate action without a meeting by less than unanimous
written consent shall be given to those stockholders who have not consented in
writing.

      Section 7.  List of Stockholders Entitled to Vote.  The officer of the
Corporation who has charge of the stock ledger of the Corporation shall prepare
and make, at least ten days before every meeting of stockholders, a complete
list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, arranged in
alphabetical order, and showing the address of each stockholder and the number
of shares registered in the name of each stockholder.  Such list shall be open
to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting,
during ordinary business hours, for a period of at least ten days prior to the
meeting, either at a place within the city where the meeting is to be held,
which place shall be specified in the notice of the meeting, or, if not so
specified, at the place where the meeting is to be held.  The list shall also be
produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time
thereof, and may be inspected by any stockholder of the Corporation who is
present.
  
      Section 8.  Stock Ledger. The stock ledger of the Corporation shall be the
only evidence as to who are the stockholders entitled to examine the stock
ledger, the list required by Section 7 of this Article II or the books of the
Corporation, or to vote in person or by proxy at any meeting of stockholders.
  
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                                  ARTICLE III

                                   DIRECTORS

     Section 1. Number and Election of Directors. The Board of Directors shall
consist of not less than three nor more than nine members, the exact number of
which shall initially be fixed by the Incorporator and thereafter from time to
time by the Board of Directors. Except as provided in Section 2 of this Article,
directors shall be elected by a plurality of the votes cast at Annual Meetings
of Stockholders, and each director so elected shall hold office until the next
Annual Meeting and until his successor is duly elected and qualified, or until
his earlier resignation or removal. Any director may resign at any time upon
notice to the Corporation. Directors need not be stockholders.

     Section 2. Vacancies. Vacancies and newly created directorships resulting
from any increase in the authorized number of directors may be filled by a
majority of the directors then in office, though less than a quorum, or by a
sole remaining director, and the directors so chosen shall hold office until the
next annual election and until their successors are duly elected and qualified,
or until their earlier resignation or removal.

     Section 3. Duties and Powers. The business of the Corporation shall be
managed by or under the direction of the Board of Directors which may exercise
all such powers of the Corporation and do all such lawful acts and things as are
not by statute or by the Certificate of Incorporation or by these By-Laws
directed or required to be exercised or done by the stockholders.

     Section 4. Meetings. The Board of Directors of the Corporation may hold
meetings, both regular and special, either within or without the State of
Delaware. Regular meetings of the Board of Directors may be held without notice
at such time and at such place as may from time to time be determined by the
Board of Directors. Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be called by
the Chairman, if there be one, the President, or any directors. Notice thereof
stating the place, date and hour of the meeting shall be given to each director
either by mail not less than forty-eight (48) hours before the date of the
meeting, by telephone or telegram on twenty-four (24) hours' notice, or on such
shorter notice as the person or persons calling such meeting may deem necessary
or appropriate in the circumstances.

     Section 5. Quorum. Except as may be otherwise specifically provided by law,
the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws, at all meetings of the Board
of Directors, a majority of the entire Board of Directors shall constitute a
quorum for the transaction of business and the act of a majority of the
directors present at any meeting at which there is a quorum shall be the act of
the Board of Directors. If a quorum shall not be present at any meeting of the
Board of Directors, the directors present thereat may adjourn the meeting from
time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a
quorum shall be present.

     Section 6. Actions of Board. Unless otherwise provided by the Certificate
of Incorporation or these By-Laws, any action required or permitted to be taken
at any meeting of the Board of Directors or of any committee thereof may be
taken without a meeting, if all the members of the Board of Directors or
committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing, and the writing or
writings are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board of Directors or
committee.

     Section 7. Meetings by Means of Conference Telephone. Unless otherwise
provided by the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws, members of the
Board of Directors of the Corporation, or any committee designated by the Board
of Directors, may participate in a meeting of the Board of

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Directors or such committee by means of a conference telephone or similar
communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the
meeting can hear each other, and participation in a meeting pursuant to this
Section 7 shall constitute presence in person at such meeting.

     Section 8.  Committees. The Board of Directors may, by resolution passed by
a majority of the entire Board of Directors, designate one or more committees,
each committee to consist of one or more of the directors of the Corporation.
The Board of Directors may designate one or more directors as alternate members
of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any
meeting of any such committee. In the absence or disqualification of a member of
a committee, and in the absence of a designation by the Board of Directors of an
alternate member to replace the absent or disqualified member, the member or
members thereof present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether
or not he or they constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of
the Board of Directors to act at the meeting in the place of any absent or
disqualified member. Any committee, to the extent allowed by law and provided in
the resolution establishing such committee, shall have and may exercise all the
powers and authority of the Board of Directors in the management of the business
and affairs of the Corporation. Each committee shall keep regular minutes and
report to the Board of Directors when required.

     Section 9.  Compensation. The directors may be paid their expenses, if any,
of attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors and may be paid a fixed
sum for attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors or a stated salary
as director. No such payment shall preclude any director from serving the
Corporation in any other capacity and receiving compensation therefor. Members
of special or standing committees may be allowed like compensation for attending
committee meetings.

     Section 10. Interested Directors. No contract or transaction between the
Corporation and one or more of its directors or officers, or between the
Corporation and any other corporation, partnership, association, or other
organization in which one or more of its directors or officers are directors or
officers, or have a financial interest, shall be void or voidable solely for
this reason, or solely because the director or officer is present at or
participates in the meeting of the Board of Directors or committee thereof which
authorizes the contract or transaction, or solely because his or their votes are
counted for such purpose if (i) the material facts as to his or their
relationship or interest and as to the contract or transaction are disclosed or
are known to the Board of Directors or the committee, and the Board of Directors
or committee in good faith authorizes the contract or transaction by the
affirmative votes of a majority of the disinterested directors, even though the
disinterested directors be less than a quorum; or (ii) the material facts as to
his or their relationship or interest and as to the contract or transaction are
disclosed or are known to the stockholders entitled to vote thereon, and the
contract or transaction is specifically approved in good faith by vote of the
stockholders; or (iii) the contract or transaction is fair as to the Corporation
as of the time it is authorized, approved or ratified, by the Board of
Directors, a committee thereof or the stockholders. Common or interested
directors may be counted in determining the presence of a quorum at a meeting of
the Board of Directors or of a committee which authorizes the contract or
transaction.

                                  ARTICLE IV

                                   OFFICERS

     Section 1.  General.  The officers of the Corporation shall consist of a
President, a Secretary, and a Treasurer. The Board of Directors, in its
discretion, may also choose a Chairman of the Board of Directors (who must be a
director) and one or more Vice Presidents, Assistant Secretaries, Assistant
Treasurers and other officers. Any number of offices may be held by the same
person, unless otherwise prohibited by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or
these By-Laws. The officers of the Corporation need

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not be stockholders of the Corporation nor, except in the case of the Chairman
of the Board of Directors, need such officers be directors of the Corporation.

     Section 2.  Election.  The Board of Directors at its first meeting held
after each Annual Meeting of Stockholders shall elect the officers of the
Corporation who shall hold their offices for such terms and shall exercise such
powers and perform such duties as shall be determined from time to time by the
Board of Directors; and all officers of the Corporation shall hold office until
their successors are chosen and qualified, or until their earlier resignation or
removal.  Any officer elected by the Board of Directors may be removed at any
time by the affirmative vote of a majority of the Board of Directors.  Any
vacancy occurring in any office of the Corporation shall be filled by the Board
of Directors.  The salaries of all officers of the Corporation shall be fixed by
the Board of Directors.

     Section 3.  Voting Securities Owned by the Corporation. Powers of attorney,
proxies, waivers of notice of meeting, consents and other instruments relating
to securities owned by the Corporation may be executed in the name of and on
behalf of the Corporation by the President or any Vice President and any such
officer may, in the name of and on behalf of the Corporation, take all such
action as any such officer may deem advisable to vote in person or by proxy at
any meeting of security holders of any corporation in which the Corporation may
own securities and at any such meeting shall possess and may exercise any and
all rights and power incident to the ownership of such securities and which, as
the owner thereof, the Corporation might have exercised and possessed if
present. The Board of Directors may, by resolution, from time to time confer
like powers upon any other person or persons.
 
     Section 4.  Chairman of the Board of Directors.  The Chairman of the Board
of Directors, if there be one, shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders
and of the Board of Directors.  He shall be the Chief Executive Officer of the
Corporation, and except where by law the signature of the President is required,
the Chairman of the Board of Directors shall possess the same power as the
President to sign all contracts, certificates and other instruments of the
Corporation which may be authorized by the Board of Directors.  During the
absence or disability of the President, the Chairman of the Board of Directors
shall exercise all the powers and discharge all the duties of the President.
The Chairman of the Board of Directors shall also perform such other duties and
may exercise such other powers as from time to time may be assigned to him by
these By-Laws or by the Board of Directors.
 
     Section 5.  President.  The President shall, subject to the control of the
Board of Directors and, if there be one, the Chairman of the Board of Directors,
have general supervision of the business of the Corporation and shall see that
all orders and resolutions of the Board of Directors are carried into effect.
He shall execute all bonds, mortgages, contracts and other instruments of the
Corporation requiring a seal, under the seal of the Corporation, except where
required or permitted by law to be otherwise signed and executed and except that
the other officers of the Corporation may sign and execute documents when so
authorized by these By-Laws, the Board of Directors or the President.  In the
absence or disability of the Chairman of the Board of Directors, or if there be
none, the President shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and the
Board of Directors.  If there be no Chairman of the Board of Directors, the
President shall be the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation.  The
President shall also perform such other duties and may exercise such other
powers as from time to time may be assigned to him by these By-Laws or by the
Board of Directors.
 
     Section 6.  Vice Presidents.  At the request of the President or in his
absence or in the event of his inability or refusal to act (and if there be no
Chairman of the Board of Directors), the Vice President or the Vice Presidents
if there is more than one (in the order designated by the Board of Directors)
shall perform the duties of the President, and when so acting, shall have all
the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the President.  Each
Vice President shall perform such other duties and have such 

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other powers as the Board of Directors from time to time may prescribe. If there
be no Chairman of the Board of Directors and no Vice President, the Board of
Directors shall designate the officer of the Corporation who, in the absence of
the President or in the event of the inability or refusal of the President to
act, shall perform the duties of the President, and when so acting, shall have
all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the President.

     Section 7.   Secretary.  The Secretary shall attend all meetings of the
Board of Directors and all meetings of stockholders and record all the
proceedings thereat in a book or books to be kept for that purpose; the
Secretary shall also perform like duties for the standing committees when
required.  The Secretary shall give, or cause to be given, notice of all
meetings of the stockholders and special meetings of the Board of Directors, and
shall perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors
or President, under whose supervision he shall be.  If the Secretary shall be
unable or shall refuse to cause to be given notice of all meetings of the
stockholders and special meetings of the Board of Directors, and if there be no
Assistant Secretary, then either the Board of Directors or the President may
choose another officer to cause such notice to be given.  The Secretary shall
have custody of the seal of the Corporation and the Secretary or any Assistant
Secretary, if there be one, shall have authority to affix the same to any
instrument requiring it and when so affixed, it may be attested by the signature
of the Secretary or by the signature of any such Assistant Secretary.  The Board
of Directors may give general authority to any other officer to affix the seal
of the Corporation and to attest the affixing by his signature.  The Secretary
shall see that all books, reports, statements, certificates and other documents
and records required by law to be kept or filed are properly kept or filed, as
the case may be.

     Section 8.   Treasurer.  The Treasurer shall have the custody of the
corporate funds and securities and shall keep full and accurate accounts of
receipts and disbursements in books belonging to the Corporation and shall
deposit all moneys and other valuable effects in the name and to the credit of
the Corporation in such depositories as may be designated by the Board of
Directors.  The Treasurer shall disburse the funds of the Corporation as may be
ordered by the Board of Directors, taking proper vouchers for such
disbursements, and shall render to the President and the Board of Directors, at
its regular meetings, or when the Board of Directors so requires, an account of
all his transactions as Treasurer and of the financial condition of the
Corporation.  If required by the Board of Directors, the Treasurer shall give
the Corporation a bond in such sum and with such surety or sureties as shall be
satisfactory to the Board of Directors for the faithful performance of the
duties of his office and for the restoration to the Corporation, in case of his
death, resignation, retirement or removal from office, of all books, papers,
vouchers, money and other property of whatever kind in his possession or under
his control belonging to the Corporation.
  
     Section 9.   Assistant Secretaries.  Except as may be otherwise provided in
these By-Laws, Assistant Secretaries, if there be any, shall perform such duties
and have such powers as from time to time may be assigned to them by the Board
of Directors, the President, any Vice President, if there be one, or the
Secretary, and in the absence of the Secretary or in the event of his disability
or refusal to act, shall perform the duties of the Secretary, and when so
acting, shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon
the Secretary.

     Section 10.  Assistant Treasurers.  Assistant Treasurers, if there be any,
shall perform such duties and have such powers as from time to time may be
assigned to them by the Board of Directors, the President, any Vice President,
if there be one, or the Treasurer, and in the absence of the Treasurer or in the
event of his disability or refusal to act, shall perform the duties of the
Treasurer, and when so acting, shall have all the powers of and be subject to
all the restrictions upon the Treasurer.  If required by the Board of Directors,
an Assistant Treasurer shall give the Corporation a bond in such sum and with
such surety or sureties as shall be satisfactory to the Board of Directors for
the faithful performance of the 

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duties of his office and for the restoration to the Corporation, in case of his
death, resignation, retirement or removal from office, of all books, papers,
vouchers, money and other property of whatever kind in his possession or under
his control belonging to the Corporation.

     Section 11. Other Officers.  Such other officers as the Board of Directors
may choose shall perform such duties and have such powers as from time to time
may be assigned to them by the Board of Directors.  The Board of Directors may
delegate to any other officer of the Corporation the power to choose such other
officers and to prescribe their respective duties and powers.
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                                   ARTICLE V

                                     STOCK

     Section 1.  Form of Certificates.  Every holder of stock in the Corporation
shall be entitled to have a certificate signed, in the name of the Corporation
(i) by the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the President or a Vice President
and (ii) by the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer, or the Secretary or an
Assistant Secretary of the Corporation, certifying the number of shares owned by
him in the Corporation.

     Section 2.  Signatures.  Where a certificate is countersigned by (i) a
transfer agent other than the Corporation or its employee, or (ii) a registrar
other than the Corporation or its employee, any other Signature on the
certificate may be a facsimile.  In case any officer, transfer agent or
registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has bean placed upon a
certificate shall have ceased to be such officer, transfer agent or registrar
before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the Corporation with the
same effect as if he were such officer, transfer agent or registrar at the date
of issue.

     Section 3.  Lost Certificates.  The Board of Directors may direct a new
certificate to be issued in place of any certificate theretofore issued by the
Corporation alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, upon the making of
an affidavit of that fact by the person claiming the certificate of stock to be
lost, stolen or destroyed.  When authorizing such issue of a new certificate,
the Board of Directors may, in its discretion and as a condition precedent to
the issuance thereof, require the owner of such lost, stolen or destroyed
certificate, or his legal representative, to advertise the same in such manner
as the Board of Directors shall require and/or to give the Corporation a bond in
such sum as it may direct as indemnity against any claim that may be made
against the Corporation with respect to the certificate alleged to have been
lost, stolen or destroyed.

     Section 4.  Transfers.  Stock of the Corporation shall be transferable in
the manner prescribed by law and in these By-Laws.  Transfers of stock shall be
made on the books of the Corporation only by the person named in the certificate
or by his attorney lawfully constituted in writing and upon the surrender of the
certificate therefor, which shall be canceled before a new certificate shall be
issued.

     Section 5.  Record Date.  In order that the Corporation may determine the
stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholders or
any adjournment thereof, or entitled to express consent to corporate action in
writing without a meeting, or entitled to receive payment of any dividend or
other distribution or allotment of any rights, or entitled to exercise any
rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock, or for the
purpose of any other lawful action, the Board of Directors may fix, in advance,
a record date, which shall not be more than sixty days nor less than ten days
before the date of such meeting, nor more than sixty days prior to any other
action.  A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to
vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of 

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the meeting; provided however, that the Board of Directors may fix a new record
date for the adjourned meeting.

     Section 6.  Beneficial Owners.  The Corporation shall be entitled to
recognize the exclusive right of a person registered on its books as the owner
of shares to receive dividends, and to vote as such owner, and to hold liable
for calls and assessments a person registered on its books as the owner of
shares, and shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or
interest in such share or shares on the part of any other person, whether or not
it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise provided by
law.

                                  ARTICLE VI

                                    NOTICES

     Section 1.  Notices.  Whenever written notice is required by law, the
Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws, to be given to any director,
member of a committee or stockholder, such notice may be given by mail,
addressed to such director, member of a committee or stockholder, at his address
as it appears on the records of the Corporation, with postage thereon prepaid,
and such notice shall be deemed to be given at the time when the same shall be
deposited in the United States mail.  Written notice may also be given
personally or by telegram, telex or cable.

     Section 2.  Waivers of Notice.  Whenever any notice is required by law, the
Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws, to be given to any director,
member of a committee or stockholder, a waiver thereof in writing, signed, by
the person or persons entitled to said notice, whether before or after the time
stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent thereto.


                                  ARTICLE VII

                              GENERAL PROVISIONS

     Section 1.  Dividends. Dividends upon the capital stock of the Corporation,
subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, if any, may be
declared by the Board of Directors at any regular or special meeting and may be
paid in cash, in property, or in shares of the capital stock. Before payment of
any dividend, there may be set aside out of any funds of the Corporation
available for dividends such sum or sums as the Board of Directors from time to
time, in its absolute discretion, deems proper as a reserve or reserves to meet
contingencies, or for equalizing dividends, or for repairing or maintaining any
property of the Corporation, or for any proper purpose, and the Board of
Directors may modify or abolish any such reserve.

     Section 2.  Disbursements. All checks or demands for money and notes of the
Corporation shall be signed by such officer or officers or such other person or
persons as the Board of Directors may from time to time designate.

     Section 3.  Fiscal Year.  The fiscal year of the Corporation shall be fixed
by resolution of the Board of Directors.

     Section 4.  Corporate Seal. The corporate seal shall have inscribed thereon
the name of the Corporation, the year of its organization and the words
'Corporate Seal, Delaware.' The seal may be used by causing it or a facsimile
thereof to be impressed or affixed or reproduced or otherwise.

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                                 ARTICLE  VIII

                                INDEMNIFICATION


          Section 1.  Power to Indemnify in Actions, Suits or Proceedings other
Than Those by or in the Right of the Corporation.  Subject to Section 3 of this
Article VIII, the Corporation shall indemnify any person who was or is a party
or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed
action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or
investigative (other than an action by or in the right of the Corporation) by
reason of the fact that he is or was a director or officer of the Corporation,
or is or was a director or officer of the Corporation serving at the request of
the Corporation as a director or officer, employee or agent of another
corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other
enterprise, against expenses (including attorneys' fees), judgments, fines and
amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by him in connection
with such action, suit or proceeding if he acted in good faith and in a manner
he reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the
Corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no
reasonable cause to believe his conduct was unlawful.  The termination of any
action, suit or proceeding by judgment, order, settlement, conviction, or upon a
plea of nolo contendere or its equivalent, shall not, of itself, create a
presumption that the person did not act in good faith and in a manner which he
reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the
Corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had
reasonable cause to believe that his conduct was unlawful.

          Section 2.  Power to Indemnify in Actions, Suits or Proceedings by or
in the Right of the Corporation.  Subject to Section 3 of this Article VIII, the
Corporation shall indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to
be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action or suit by or in
the right of the Corporation to procure a judgment in its favor by reason of the
fact that he is or was a director or officer of the Corporation, or is or was a
director or officer of the Corporation serving at the request of the Corporation
as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership,
joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise against expenses
(including attorneys' fees) actually and reasonably incurred by him in
connection with the defense or settlement of such action or suit if he acted in
good faith and in a manner he reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the
best interests of the Corporation; except that no indemnification shall be made
in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been
adjudged to be liable to the Corporation unless and only to the extent that the
Court of Chancery or the court in which such action or suit was brought shall
determine upon application that, despite the adjudication of liability but in
view of all the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably
entitled to indemnity for such expenses which the Court of Chancery or such
other court shall deem proper.

          Section 3.  Authorization of Indemnification.  Any indemnification
under this Article VIII (unless ordered by a court) shall be made by the
Corporation only as authorized in the specific case upon a determination that
indemnification of the director or officer is proper in the circumstances
because he has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in Section 1 or
Section 2 of this Article VIII, as the case may be.  Such determination shall be
made (i) by the Board of Directors by a majority vote of a quorum consisting of
directors who were not parties to such action, suit or proceeding, or (ii) if
such a quorum is not obtainable, or, even if obtainable a quorum of
disinterested directors so directs, by independent legal counsel in a written
opinion, or (iii) by the stockholders.  To the extent, however, that a director
or officer of the Corporation has been successful on the merits or otherwise in
defense of any action, suit or proceeding described above, or in defense of any
claim, issue or matter therein, he shall be indemnified against expenses
(including attorneys' fees) actually and reasonably incurred by him in
connection therewith, without the necessity of authorization in the specific
case.

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          Section 4.  Good Faith Defined.  For purposes of any determination
under Section 3 of this Article VIII, a person shall be deemed to have acted in
good faith and in a manner he reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the
best interests of the Corporation, or, with respect to any criminal action or
proceeding, to have had no reasonable cause to believe his conduct was unlawful,
if his action is based on the records or books of account of the Corporation or
another enterprise, or on information supplied to him by the officers of the
Corporation or another enterprise in the course of their duties, or on the
advice of legal counsel for the Corporation or another enterprise or on
information or records given or reports made to the Corporation or another
enterprise by an independent certified public accountant or by an appraiser or
other expert selected with reasonable care by the Corporation or another
enterprise.  The term 'another enterprise' as used in this Section 4 shall mean
any other corporation or any partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit
plan or other enterprise of which such person is or was serving at the request
of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent.  The provisions of
this Section 4 shall not be deemed to be exclusive or to limit in any way the
circumstances in which a person may be deemed to have met the applicable
standard of conduct set forth in Sections 1 or 2 of this Article VIII, as the
case may be.

          Section 5.  Indemnification by a Court.  Notwithstanding any contrary
determination in the specific case under Section 3 of this Article VIII, and
notwithstanding the absence of any determination thereunder, any director or
officer may apply to any court of competent jurisdiction in the State of
Delaware for indemnification to the extent otherwise permissible under Sections
1 and 2 of this Article VIII.  The basis of such indemnification by a court
shall be a determination by such court that indemnification of the director or
officer is proper in the circumstances because he has met the applicable
standards of conduct set forth in Sections 1 or 2 of this Article VIII, as the
case may be.  Neither a contrary determination in the specific case under
Section 3 of this Article VIII nor the absence of any determination thereunder
shall be a defense to such application or create a presumption that the director
or officer seeking indemnification has not met any applicable standard of
conduct.  Notice of any application for indemnification pursuant to this Section
5 shall be given to the Corporation promptly upon the filing of such
application.  If successful, in whole or in part, the director or officer
seeking indemnification shall also be entitled to be paid the expense of
prosecuting such application.

          Section 6.  Expenses Payable in Advance.  Expenses incurred by a
director or officer in defending or investigating a threatened or pending
action, suit or proceeding shall be paid by the Corporation in advance of the
final disposition of such action, suit or proceeding upon receipt of an
undertaking by or on behalf of such director or officer to repay such amount if
it shall ultimately be determined that he is not entitled to be indemnified by
the Corporation as authorized in this Article VIII.

          Section 7.  Nonexclusivity of Indemnification and Advancement of
Expenses.  The indemnification and advancement of expenses provided by or
granted pursuant to this Article VIII shall not be deemed exclusive of any other
rights to which those seeking indemnification or advancement of expenses may be
entitled under any By-Law, agreement, contract, vote of stockholders or
disinterested directors or pursuant to the direction (howsoever embodied) of any
court of competent jurisdiction or otherwise, both as to action in his official
capacity and as to action in another capacity while holding such office, it
being the policy of the Corporation that indemnification of the persons
specified in Sections 1 and 2 of this Article VIII shall be made to the fullest
extent permitted by law.  The provisions of this Article VIII shall not be
deemed to preclude the indemnification of any person who is not specified in
Sections 1 or 2 of this Article VIII but whom the Corporation has the power or
obligation to indemnify under the provisions of the General Corporation Law of
the State of Delaware, or otherwise.

          Section 8.  Insurance.  The Corporation may purchase and maintain
insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director or officer of the
Corporation, or is or was a director or officer of the 

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Corporation serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer,
employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust,
employee benefit plan or other enterprise against any liability asserted against
him and incurred by him in any such capacity, or arising out of his status as
such, whether or not the Corporation would have the power or the obligation to
indemnify him against such liability under the provisions of this Article VIII.

          Section 9.  Certain Definitions.  For purposes of this Article VIII,
references to 'the Corporation' shall include, in addition to the resulting
corporation, any constituent corporation (including any constituent of a
constituent) absorbed in a consolidation or merger which, if its separate
existence had continued, would have had power and authority to indemnify its
directors or officers, so that any person who is or was a director or officer of
such constituent corporation, or is or was a director or officer of such
constituent corporation serving at the request of such constituent corporation
as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership,
joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise, shall stand in
the same position under the provisions of this Article VIII with respect to the
resulting or surviving corporation as he would have with respect to such
constituent corporation if its separate existence had continued.  For purposes
of this Article VIII, references to 'fines' shall include any excise taxes
assessed on a person with respect to an employee benefit plan; and references to
'serving at the request of the Corporation' shall include any service as a
director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation which imposes duties on,
or involves services by, such director or officer with respect to an employee
benefit plan, its participants or beneficiaries; and a person who acted in good
faith and in a manner he reasonably believed to be in the interest of the
participants and beneficiaries of an employee benefit plan shall be deemed to
have acted in a manner 'not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation' as
referred to in this Article VIII.

          Section 10. Survival of Indemnification and Advancement of Expenses.
The indemnification and advancement of expenses provided by, or granted pursuant
to, this Article VIII shall, unless otherwise provided when authorized or
ratified, continue as to a person who has ceased to be a director or officer and
shall inure to the benefit of the heirs, executors and administrators of such a
person.

          Section 11. Limitation on Indemnification.  Notwithstanding anything
contained in this Article VIII to the contrary, except for proceedings to
enforce rights to indemnification (which shall be governed by Section 5 hereof),
the Corporation shall not be obligated to indemnify any director or officer in
connection with a proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such person unless
such proceeding (or part thereof) was authorized or consented to by the Board of
Directors of the Corporation.

          Section 12. Indemnification of Employees and Agents.  The Corporation
may, to the extent authorized from time to time by the Board of Directors,
provide rights to indemnification and to the advancement of expenses to
employees and agents of the Corporation similar to those conferred in this
Article VIII to directors and officers of the Corporation.

                                  ARTICLE IX

                                  AMENDMENTS

          Section 1.  These By-Laws may be altered, amended or repealed, in
whole or in part, or new By-Laws may be adopted by the stockholders or by the
Board of Directors, provided, however, that notice of such alteration,
amendment, repeal or adoption of new By-Laws be contained in the notice of such
meeting of stockholders or Board of Directors, as the case may be.  All such
amendments must be approved by either the holders of a majority of the
outstanding capital stock entitled to vote thereon or by a majority of the
entire Board of Directors then in office.

                                      11

 
          Section 2.  Entire Board of Directors.  As used in this Article IX and
in these By-Laws generally the term 'entire Board of Directors' means the total
number of directors which the Corporation would have if there were no vacancies.


                                 CERTIFICATION

          I, Edward S. Tian, Secretary of the Corporation, do hereby certify
that the foregoing is a full, true and correct copy of the Corporation's By-Laws
in full force and effect as of June 8, 1998.


 
                                            /s/ EDWARD S. TIAN
                                        ----------------------------------
                                        EDWARD S. TIAN, Secretary

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