Bylaws - Intraware Inc.


                                        BYLAWS

                                          OF

                                   INTRAWARE, INC.
                               (a Delaware corporation)




                                      BYLAWS OF

                                   INTRAWARE, INC.
                               (A DELAWARE CORPORATION)

                                  TABLE OF CONTENTS


                                                                           PAGE
                                                                        
ARTICLE I  CORPORATE OFFICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

     1.1    REGISTERED OFFICE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
     1.2    OTHER OFFICES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

ARTICLE II  MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

     2.1    PLACE OF MEETINGS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
     2.2    ANNUAL MEETING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
     2.3    SPECIAL MEETING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
     2.4    NOTICE OF STOCKHOLDERS' MEETINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
     2.5    MANNER OF GIVING NOTICE; AFFIDAVIT OF NOTICE . . . . . . . . . . 3
     2.6    QUORUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
     2.7    ADJOURNED MEETING; NOTICE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
     2.8    VOTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
     2.9    STOCKHOLDER ACTION BY WRITTEN CONSENT WITHOUT A MEETING  . . . . 5
     2.10   RECORD DATE FOR STOCKHOLDER NOTICE; VOTING . . . . . . . . . . . 5
     2.11   PROXIES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
     2.12   ORGANIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
     2.13   LIST OF STOCKHOLDERS ENTITLED TO VOTE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

ARTICLE III  DIRECTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

     3.1    POWERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
     3.2    NUMBER OF DIRECTORS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
     3.3    ELECTION AND TERM OF OFFICE OF DIRECTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
     3.4    RESIGNATION AND VACANCIES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
     3.5    REMOVAL OF DIRECTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
     3.6    PLACE OF MEETINGS; MEETINGS BY TELEPHONE . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
     3.7    FIRST MEETINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
     3.8    REGULAR MEETINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
     3.9    SPECIAL MEETINGS; NOTICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
     3.10   QUORUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
     3.11   WAIVER OF NOTICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
     3.12   ADJOURNMENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
     3.13   NOTICE OF ADJOURNMENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
     3.14   BOARD ACTION BY WRITTEN CONSENT WITHOUT A MEETING. . . . . . . .10


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                                  TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                     (CONTINUED)

                                                                           PAGE

     3.15   FEES AND COMPENSATION OF DIRECTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
     3.16   APPROVAL OF LOANS TO OFFICERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
     3.17   SOLE DIRECTOR PROVIDED BY CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION . . . . .10

ARTICLE IV  COMMITTEES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11

     4.1    COMMITTEES OF DIRECTORS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
     4.2    MEETINGS AND ACTION OF COMMITTEES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
     4.3    COMMITTEE MINUTES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12

ARTICLE V  OFFICERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12

     5.1    OFFICERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
     5.2    ELECTION OF OFFICERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
     5.3    SUBORDINATE OFFICERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
     5.4    REMOVAL AND RESIGNATION OF OFFICERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
     5.5    VACANCIES IN OFFICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
     5.6    CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
     5.7    PRESIDENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
     5.8    VICE PRESIDENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
     5.9    SECRETARY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
     5.10   CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
     5.11   ASSISTANT SECRETARY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
     5.12   ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
     5.13   AUTHORITY AND DUTIES OF OFFICERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15

ARTICLE VI  INDEMNIFICATION OF DIRECTORS, OFFICERS, EMPLOYEES AND OTHER
     AGENTS 15

     6.1    INDEMNIFICATION OF DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS. . . . . . . . . . . .15
     6.2    INDEMNIFICATION OF OTHERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
     6.3    INSURANCE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17

ARTICLE VII  RECORDS AND REPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17

     7.1    MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION OF RECORDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
     7.2    INSPECTION BY DIRECTORS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
     7.3    ANNUAL STATEMENT TO STOCKHOLDERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
     7.4    REPRESENTATION OF SHARES OF OTHER CORPORATIONS . . . . . . . . .18
     7.5    CERTIFICATION AND INSPECTION OF BYLAWS . . . . . . . . . . . . .18


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                                  TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                     (CONTINUED)

                                                                           PAGE

ARTICLE VIII  GENERAL MATTERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18

     8.1    RECORD DATE FOR PURPOSES OTHER THAN NOTICE AND VOTING. . . . . .18
     8.2    CHECKS; DRAFTS; EVIDENCES OF INDEBTEDNESS. . . . . . . . . . . .19
     8.3    CORPORATE CONTRACTS AND INSTRUMENTS:  HOW EXECUTED . . . . . . .19
     8.4    STOCK CERTIFICATES; TRANSFER; PARTLY PAID SHARES . . . . . . . .19
     8.5    SPECIAL DESIGNATION ON CERTIFICATES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
     8.6    LOST CERTIFICATES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
     8.7    TRANSFER AGENTS AND REGISTRARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
     8.8    CONSTRUCTION; DEFINITIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21

ARTICLE IX  AMENDMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21




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                                        BYLAWS

                                          OF

                                   INTRAWARE, INC.
                               (A DELAWARE CORPORATION)

                                      ARTICLE I

                                  CORPORATE OFFICES


       1.1     REGISTERED OFFICE

       The registered office of the corporation shall be fixed in the
certificate of incorporation of the corporation.

       1.2     OTHER OFFICES

       The board of directors may at any time establish branch or subordinate
offices at any place or places where the corporation is qualified to do
business.


                                      ARTICLE II

                               MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS


       2.1     PLACE OF MEETINGS

       Meetings of stockholders shall be held at any place within or outside
the State of Delaware designated by the board of directors.  In the absence of
any such designation, stockholders' meetings shall be held at the principal
executive office of the corporation.

       2.2     ANNUAL MEETING

       The annual meeting of the stockholders of this corporation shall be held
each year on a date and at a time designated by the board of directors.  At the
meeting, directors shall be elected and any other proper business may be
transacted.  Nominations of persons for election to the board of directors of
the corporation and the proposal of business to be considered by the
stockholders may be made at an annual meeting of stockholders only (a) pursuant
to the corporation's notice of meeting, (b) by or at the direction of the board
of directors or (c) by any stockholder of the corporation who




was a stockholder of record at the time of giving of notice provided for in
these Bylaws, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who complies with the
notice procedures set forth in this Bylaw.

       For nominations or other business to be properly brought before an
annual meeting by a stockholder pursuant to clause (c) of the preceding
sentence, the stockholder must have given timely notice thereof in writing to
the secretary of the corporation and such other business must otherwise be a
proper matter for stockholder action.  To be timely, a stockholder's notice
shall be delivered to the secretary at the principal executive offices of the
corporation not later than the close of business on the 60th day nor earlier
than the close of business on the 90th day prior to the meeting; provided,
however, that in the event that less than 65 days notice of the meeting is given
to stockholders, notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so delivered not
earlier than the close of business on the seventh (7th) day following the day on
which the notice of meeting was mailed.  In no event shall the public
announcement of an adjournment of an annual meeting commence a new time period
for the giving of a stockholder's notice as described above.  Such stockholder's
notice shall set forth (a) as to each person whom the stockholder proposes to
nominate for election or reelection as a director all information relating to
such person that is required to be disclosed in solicitations of proxies for
election of directors in an election contest, or is otherwise required, in each
case pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as
amended (or any successor thereto) (the 'Exchange Act') and Rule 14a-11
thereunder (or any successor thereto) (including such person's written consent
to being named in the proxy statement as a nominee and to serving as a director
if elected); (b) as to any other business that the stockholder proposes to bring
before the meeting, a brief description of the business desired to be brought
before the meeting, the reasons for conducting such business at the meeting and
any material interest in such business of such stockholder and the beneficial
owner, if any, on whose behalf the proposal is made; and (c) as to the
stockholder giving the notice and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf
the nomination or proposal is made (i) the name and address of such stockholder,
as they appear on the corporation's books, and of such beneficial owner, and
(ii) the class and number of shares of the corporation which are owned
beneficially and of record by such stockholder and such beneficial owner.
Notwithstanding any provision herein to the contrary, no business shall be
conducted at an annual meeting except in accordance with the procedures set
forth in this Section 2.2.

       2.3     SPECIAL MEETING

       A special meeting of the stockholders may be called at any time by the
board of directors, or by the chairman of the board or by the president.

       If a special meeting is called by any person or persons other than the
board of directors, the request shall be in writing to the secretary of the
corporation, and shall set forth (a) as to each person whom such person or
persons propose to nominate for election or reelection as a director at such
meeting all information relating to such proposed nominee that is required to be
disclosed in solicitations of proxies for election of directors in an election
contest, or is otherwise required, in each case pursuant to Regulation 14A under
the Exchange Act (or any successor thereto) and Rule 14a-11 thereunder (or any
successor thereto) (including such proposed nominee's written


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consent to being named in the proxy statement as a nominee and to serving as a
director if elected); (b) as to any other business to be taken at the meeting, a
brief description of such business, the reasons for conducting such business and
any material interest in such business of the person or persons calling such
meeting and the beneficial owners, if any, on whose behalf such meeting is
called; and (c) as to the person or persons calling such meeting and the
beneficial owners, if any, on whose behalf the meeting is called (i) the name
and address of such persons, as they appear on the corporation's books, and of
such beneficial owners, and (ii) the class and number of shares of the
corporation which are owned beneficially and of record by such persons and such
beneficial owners.  No business may be transacted at such special meeting
otherwise than specified in such notice or by or at the direction of the
corporation's board of directors.  The corporation's secretary shall cause
notice to be promptly given to the stockholders entitled to vote, in accordance
with the provisions of Sections 2.4 and 2.5, that a meeting will be held at the
time reasonably requested by the person or persons who called the meeting, not
less than 60 nor more than 90 days after the receipt of the request.  If the
notice is not given within 20 days after the receipt of a valid request, the
person or persons requesting the meeting may give the notice.  Nothing contained
in this paragraph 2.3 shall be construed as limiting, fixing or affecting the
time when a meeting of stockholders called by action of the board of directors
may be held.

       Only such business shall be conducted at a special meeting of
stockholders called by action of the board of directors as shall have been
brought before the meeting pursuant to the corporation's notice of meeting.

       2.4     NOTICE OF STOCKHOLDERS' MEETINGS

       All notices of meetings of stockholders shall be sent or otherwise given
in accordance with Sections 2.2 and 2.3 of these bylaws not less than ten (10)
nor more than sixty (60) days before the date of the meeting.  The notice shall
specify the place, date and hour of the meeting and (i) in the case of a special
meeting, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called (no business
other than that specified in the notice may be transacted) or (ii) in the case
of the annual meeting, those matters which the board of directors, at the time
of giving the notice, intends to present for action by the stockholders (but any
proper matter may be presented at the meeting for such action).  The notice of
any meeting at which directors are to be elected shall include the name of any
nominee or nominees who, at the time of the notice, the board intends to present
for election.

       2.5     MANNER OF GIVING NOTICE; AFFIDAVIT OF NOTICE

       Written notice of any meeting of stockholders shall be given either
personally or by first-class mail or by telegraphic or other written
communication.  Notices not personally delivered shall be sent charges prepaid
and shall be addressed to the stockholder at the address of that stockholder
appearing on the books of the corporation or given by the stockholder to the
corporation for the purpose of notice.  Notice shall be deemed to have been
given at the time when delivered personally or deposited in the mail or sent by
telegram or other means of written communication.


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       An affidavit of the mailing or other means of giving any notice of any
stockholders' meeting, executed by the secretary, assistant secretary or any
transfer agent of the corporation giving the notice, shall be prima facie
evidence of the giving of such notice.

       2.6     QUORUM

       The holders of a majority in voting power of the stock issued and
outstanding and entitled to vote thereat, present in person or represented by
proxy, shall constitute a quorum at all meetings of the stockholders for the
transaction of business except as otherwise provided by statute or by the
certificate of incorporation.  If, however, such quorum is not present or
represented at any meeting of the stockholders, then either (i) the chairman of
the meeting or (ii) the stockholders entitled to vote thereat, present in person
or represented by proxy, shall have power to adjourn the meeting in accordance
with Section 2.7 of these bylaws.

       When a quorum is present at any meeting, the vote of the holders of a
majority of the stock having voting power present in person or represented by
proxy shall decide any question brought before such meeting, unless the question
is one upon which, by express provision of the laws of the State of Delaware or
of the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, a different vote is
required, in which case such express provision shall govern and control the
decision of the question.

       If a quorum be initially present, the stockholders may continue to
transact business until adjournment, notwithstanding the withdrawal of enough
stockholders to leave less than a quorum, if any action taken is approved by a
majority of the stockholders initially constituting the quorum.

       2.7     ADJOURNED MEETING; NOTICE

       When a meeting is adjourned to another time and place, unless these
bylaws otherwise require, notice need not be given of the adjourned meeting if
the time and place thereof are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment
is taken.  At the adjourned meeting the corporation may transact any business
that might have been transacted at the original meeting.  If the adjournment is
for more than thirty (30) days, or if after the adjournment a new record date is
fixed for the adjourned meeting, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be
given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting.

       2.8     VOTING

       The stockholders entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders shall
be determined in accordance with the provisions of Section 2.10 of these bylaws,
subject to the provisions of Sections 217 and 218 of the General Corporation Law
of Delaware (relating to voting rights of fiduciaries, pledgors and joint
owners, and to voting trusts and other voting agreements).

       Except as may be otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation
or these bylaws, each stockholder shall be entitled to one vote for each share
of capital stock held by such stockholder.


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       2.9     STOCKHOLDER ACTION BY WRITTEN CONSENT WITHOUT A MEETING

       The stockholders may not take any action by written consent in lieu of a
meeting, and must take any actions at a duly called annual or special meeting of
stockholders and the power of stockholders to consent in writing is specifically
denied.

       2.10    RECORD DATE FOR STOCKHOLDER NOTICE; VOTING

       For purposes of determining the stockholders entitled to notice of any
meeting or to vote thereat, the board of directors may fix, in advance, a record
date, which shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the
record date is adopted by the board of directors and which shall not be more
than sixty (60) days nor less than ten (10) days before the date of any such
meeting, and in such event only stockholders of record on the date so fixed are
entitled to notice and to vote, notwithstanding any transfer of any shares on
the books of the corporation after the record date.

       If the board of directors does not so fix a record date, the record date
for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of
stockholders shall be at the close of business on the business day next
preceding the day on which notice is given, or, if notice is waived, at the
close of business on the business day next preceding the day on which the
meeting is held.

       A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to
vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting
unless the board of directors fixes a new record date for the adjourned meeting,
but the board of directors shall fix a new record date if the meeting is
adjourned for more than thirty (30) days from the date set for the original
meeting.

       The record date for any other purpose shall be as provided in Section
8.1 of these bylaws.

       2.11    PROXIES

       Every person entitled to vote for directors, or on any other matter,
shall have the right to do so either in person or by one or more agents
authorized by a written proxy signed by the person and filed with the secretary
of the corporation, but no such proxy shall be voted or acted upon after three
(3) years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period.  A proxy
shall be deemed signed if the stockholder's name is placed on the proxy (whether
by manual signature, typewriting, telegraphic transmission, telefacsimile or
otherwise) by the stockholder or the stockholder's attorney-in-fact.  The
revocability of a proxy that states on its face that it is irrevocable shall be
governed by the provisions of Section 212(e) of the General Corporation Law of
Delaware.

       2.12    ORGANIZATION

       The president, or in the absence of the president, the chairman of the
board, shall call the meeting of the stockholders to order, and shall act as
chairman of the meeting.  In the absence of the president, the chairman of the
board, and all of the vice presidents, the stockholders shall appoint a


                                         -5-


chairman for such meeting.  The chairman of any meeting of stockholders shall
determine the order of business and the procedures at the meeting, including
such matters as the regulation of the manner of voting and the conduct of
business.  The secretary of the corporation shall act as secretary of all
meetings of the stockholders, but in the absence of the secretary at any meeting
of the stockholders, the chairman of the meeting may appoint any person to act
as secretary of the meeting.

       2.13    LIST OF STOCKHOLDERS ENTITLED TO VOTE

       The officer who has charge of the stock ledger of the corporation shall
prepare and make, at least ten (10) days before every meeting of stockholders, a
complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, arranged in
alphabetical order, and showing the address of each stockholder and the number
of shares registered in the name of each stockholder.  Such list shall be open
to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting,
during ordinary business hours, for a period of at least ten (10) days prior to
the meeting, either at a place within the city where the meeting is to be held,
which place shall be specified in the notice of the meeting, or, if not so
specified, at the place where the meeting is to be held.  The list shall also be
produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time
thereof, and may be inspected by any stockholder who is present.


                                     ARTICLE III

                                      DIRECTORS


       3.1     POWERS

       Subject to the provisions of the General Corporation Law of Delaware and
to any limitations in the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws relating
to action required to be approved by the stockholders or by the outstanding
shares, the business and affairs of the corporation shall be managed and all
corporate powers shall be exercised by or under the direction of the board of
directors.

       3.2     NUMBER OF DIRECTORS

       The board of directors shall consist of seven (7) members.  The number
of directors may be changed by an amendment to this bylaw, duly adopted by the
board of directors or by the stockholders, or by a duly adopted amendment to the
certificate of incorporation.

       3.3     ELECTION AND TERM OF OFFICE OF DIRECTORS

       Except as provided in Section 3.4 of these bylaws, directors shall be
elected at each annual meeting of stockholders to hold office until the next
annual meeting. Each director, including a


                                         -6-


director elected or appointed to fill a vacancy, shall hold office until the
expiration of the term for which elected and until a successor has been elected
and qualified.

       Election of directors need not be by written ballot.

       3.4     RESIGNATION AND VACANCIES

       Any director may resign effective on giving written notice to the
chairman of the board, the president, the secretary or the board of directors,
unless the notice specifies a later time for that resignation to become
effective.  If the resignation of a director is effective at a future time, the
board of directors may elect a successor to take office when the resignation
becomes effective.

       Vacancies in the board of directors may be filled by a majority of the
remaining directors, even if less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining
director; however, a vacancy created by the removal of a director by the vote of
the stockholders or by court order may be filled only by the affirmative vote of
a majority of the shares represented and voting at a duly held meeting at which
a quorum is present (which shares voting affirmatively also constitute a
majority of the required quorum).  Unless otherwise provided in the certificate
of incorporation or these bylaws, each director so elected shall hold office
until the next annual meeting of the stockholders and until a successor has been
elected and qualified.

       Unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation or these
bylaws:

               (i)    Vacancies and newly created directorships resulting from
any increase in the authorized number of directors elected by all of the
stockholders having the right to vote as a single class may be filled by a
majority of the directors then in office, although less than a quorum, or by a
sole remaining director.

               (ii)   Whenever the holders of any class or classes of stock or
series thereof are entitled to elect one or more directors by the provisions of
the certificate of incorporation, vacancies and newly created directorships of
such class or classes or series may be filled by a majority of the directors
elected by such class or classes or series thereof then in office, or by a sole
remaining director so elected.

       If at any time, by reason of death or resignation or other cause, the
corporation should have no directors in office, then any officer or any
stockholder or an executor, administrator, trustee or guardian of a stockholder,
or other fiduciary entrusted with like responsibility for the person or estate
of a stockholder, may call a special meeting of stockholders in accordance with
the provisions of the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, or may apply
to the Court of Chancery for a decree summarily ordering an election as provided
in Section 211 of the General Corporation Law of Delaware.


                                         -7-


       If, at the time of filling any vacancy or any newly created
directorship, the directors then in office constitute less than a majority of
the whole board (as constituted immediately prior to any such increase), then
the Court of Chancery may, upon application of any stockholder or stockholders
holding at least ten (10) percent of the total number of the shares at the time
outstanding having the right to vote for such directors, summarily order an
election to be held to fill any such vacancies or newly created directorships,
or to replace the directors chosen by the directors then in office as aforesaid,
which election shall be governed by the provisions of Section 211 of the General
Corporation Law of Delaware as far as applicable.

       3.5     REMOVAL OF DIRECTORS

       Unless otherwise restricted by statute, by the certificate of
incorporation or by these bylaws, any director or the entire board of directors
may be removed, only with cause, by the holders of a majority of the shares then
entitled to vote at an election of directors.

       3.6     PLACE OF MEETINGS; MEETINGS BY TELEPHONE

       Regular meetings of the board of directors may be held at any place
within or outside the State of Delaware that has been designated from time to
time by resolution of the board.  In the absence of such a designation, regular
meetings shall be held at the principal executive office of the corporation.
Special meetings of the board may be held at any place within or outside the
State of Delaware that has been designated in the notice of the meeting or, if
not stated in the notice or if there is no notice, at the principal executive
office of the corporation.

       Any meeting of the board, regular or special, may be held by conference
telephone or similar communication equipment, so long as all directors
participating in the meeting can hear one another; and all such participating
directors shall be deemed to be present in person at the meeting.

       3.7     FIRST MEETINGS

       The first meeting of each newly elected board of directors shall be held
at such time and place as shall be fixed by the vote of the stockholders at the
annual meeting.  In the event of the failure of the stockholders to fix the time
or place of such first meeting of the newly elected board of directors, or in
the event such meeting is not held at the time and place so fixed by the
stockholders, the meeting may be held at such time and place as shall be
specified in a notice given as hereinafter provided for special meetings of the
board of directors, or as shall be specified in a written waiver signed by all
of the directors.

       3.8     REGULAR MEETINGS

       Regular meetings of the board of directors may be held without notice at
such time as shall from time to time be determined by the board of directors.
If any regular meeting day shall fall on a


                                         -8-


legal holiday, then the meeting shall be held at the same time and place on the
next succeeding full business day.

       3.9     SPECIAL MEETINGS; NOTICE

       Special meetings of the board of directors for any purpose or purposes
may be called at any time by the chairman of the board, the president, any vice
president, the secretary or any two directors.

       Notice of the time and place of special meetings shall be delivered
personally or by telephone to each director or sent by first-class mail,
telecopy or telegram, charges prepaid, addressed to each director at that
director's address as it is shown on the records of the corporation.  If the
notice is mailed, it shall be deposited in the United States mail at least four
(4) days before the time of the holding of the meeting.  If the notice is
delivered personally or by telephone, telecopy or telegram, it shall be
delivered personally or by telephone or to the telegraph company at least
forty-eight (48) hours before the time of the holding of the meeting.  Any oral
notice given personally or by telephone may be communicated either to the
director or to a person at the office of the director who the person giving the
notice has reason to believe will promptly communicate it to the director.  The
notice need not specify the purpose or the place of the meeting, if the meeting
is to be held at the principal executive office of the corporation.

       3.10    QUORUM

       A majority of the authorized number of directors shall constitute a
quorum for the transaction of business, except to adjourn as provided in
Section 3.12 of these bylaws.  Every act or decision done or made by a majority
of the directors present at a duly held meeting at which a quorum is present
shall be regarded as the act of the board of directors, subject to the
provisions of the certificate of incorporation and applicable law.

       A meeting at which a quorum is initially present may continue to
transact business notwithstanding the withdrawal of directors, if any action
taken is approved by at least a majority of the quorum for that meeting.

       3.11    WAIVER OF NOTICE

       Notice of a meeting need not be given to any director (i) who signs a
waiver of notice, whether before or after the meeting, or (ii) who attends the
meeting other than for the express purposed of objecting at the beginning of the
meeting to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully
called or convened.  All such waivers shall be filed with the corporate records
or made part of the minutes of the meeting.  A waiver of notice need not specify
the purpose of any regular or special meeting of the board of directors.

       3.12    ADJOURNMENT


                                         -9-


       A majority of the directors present, whether or not constituting a
quorum, may adjourn any meeting of the board to another time and place.

       3.13    NOTICE OF ADJOURNMENT

       Notice of the time and place of holding an adjourned meeting of the
board need not be given unless the meeting is adjourned for more than
twenty-four (24) hours.  If the meeting is adjourned for more than twenty-four
(24) hours, then notice of the time and place of the adjourned meeting shall be
given before the adjourned meeting takes place, in the manner specified in
Section 3.9 of these bylaws, to the directors who were not present at the time
of the adjournment.

       3.14    BOARD ACTION BY WRITTEN CONSENT WITHOUT A MEETING

       Any action required or permitted to be taken by the board of directors
may be taken without a meeting, provided that all members of the board
individually or collectively consent in writing to that action.  Such action by
written consent shall have the same force and effect as a unanimous vote of the
board of directors. Such written consent and any counterparts thereof shall be
filed with the minutes of the proceedings of the board of directors.

       3.15    FEES AND COMPENSATION OF DIRECTORS

       Directors and members of committees may receive such compensation, if
any, for their services and such reimbursement of expenses as may be fixed or
determined by resolution of the board of directors.  This Section 3.15 shall not
be construed to preclude any director from serving the corporation in any other
capacity as an officer, agent, employee or otherwise and receiving compensation
for those services.

       3.16    APPROVAL OF LOANS TO OFFICERS

       The corporation may lend money to, or guarantee any obligation of, or
otherwise assist any officer or other employee of the corporation or any of its
subsidiaries, including any officer or employee who is a director of the
corporation or any of its subsidiaries, whenever, in the judgment of the
directors, such loan, guaranty or assistance may reasonably be expected to
benefit the corporation.  The loan, guaranty or other assistance may be with or
without interest and may be unsecured, or secured in such manner as the board of
directors shall approve, including, without limitation, a pledge of shares of
stock of the corporation.  Nothing contained in this section shall be deemed to
deny, limit or restrict the powers of guaranty or warranty of the corporation at
common law or under any statute.

       3.17    SOLE DIRECTOR PROVIDED BY CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION

       In the event only one director is required by these bylaws or the
certificate of incorporation, then any reference herein to notices, waivers,
consents, meetings or other actions by a majority or


                                         -10-


quorum of the directors shall be deemed to refer to such notice, waiver, etc.,
by such sole director, who shall have all the rights and duties and shall be
entitled to exercise all of the powers and shall assume all the responsibilities
otherwise herein described as given to the board of directors.


                                      ARTICLE IV

                                      COMMITTEES


       4.1     COMMITTEES OF DIRECTORS

       The board of directors may, by resolution adopted by a majority of the
authorized number of directors, designate one (1) or more committees, each
consisting of two or more directors, to serve at the pleasure of the board.  The
board may designate one (1) or more directors as alternate members of any
committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of
the committee.  The appointment of members or alternate members of a committee
requires the vote of a majority of the authorized number of directors.  Any
committee, to the extent provided in the resolution of the board, shall have and
may exercise all the powers and authority of the board, but no such committee
shall have the power or authority to (i) amend the certificate of incorporation
(except that a committee may, to the extent authorized in the resolution or
resolutions providing for the issuance of shares of stock adopted by the board
of directors as provided in Section 151(a) of the General Corporation Law of
Delaware, fix the designations and any of the preferences or rights of such
shares relating to dividends, redemption, dissolution, any distribution of
assets of the corporation or the conversion into, or the exchange of such shares
for, shares of any other class or classes or any other series of the same or any
other class or classes of stock of the corporation), (ii) adopt an agreement of
merger or consolidation under Sections 251 or 252 of the General Corporation Law
of Delaware, (iii) recommend to the stockholders the sale, lease or exchange of
all or substantially all of the corporation's property and assets,
(iv) recommend to the stockholders a dissolution of the corporation or a
revocation of a dissolution or (v) amend the bylaws of the corporation; and,
unless the board resolution establishing the committee, the bylaws or the
certificate of incorporation expressly so provide, no such committee shall have
the power or authority to declare a dividend, to authorize the issuance of
stock, or to adopt a certificate of ownership and merger pursuant to Section 253
of the General Corporation Law of Delaware.

       4.2     MEETINGS AND ACTION OF COMMITTEES

       Meetings and actions of committees shall be governed by, and held and
taken in accordance with, the following provisions of Article III of these
bylaws: Section 3.6 (place of meetings; meetings by telephone), Section 3.8
(regular meetings), Section 3.9 (special meetings; notice), Section 3.10
(quorum), Section 3.11 (waiver of notice), Section 3.12 (adjournment),
Section 3.13 (notice of adjournment) and Section 3.14 (board action by written
consent without meeting), with such changes in the context of those bylaws as
are necessary to substitute the committee and its


                                         -11-


members for the board of directors and its members; provided, however, that the
time of regular meetings of committees may be determined either by resolution of
the board of directors or by resolution of the committee, that special meetings
of committees may also be called by resolution of the board of directors, and
that notice of special meetings of committees shall also be given to all
alternate members, who shall have the right to attend all meetings of the
committee.  The board of directors may adopt rules for the government of any
committee not inconsistent with the provisions of these bylaws.

       4.3     COMMITTEE MINUTES

       Each committee shall keep regular minutes of its meetings and report the
same to the board of directors when required.


                                      ARTICLE V

                                       OFFICERS


       5.1     OFFICERS

       The Corporate Officers of the corporation shall be a president, a
secretary and a chief financial officer.  The corporation may also have, at the
discretion of the board of directors, a chairman of the board, one or more vice
presidents (however denominated), one or more assistant secretaries, one or more
assistant treasurers, and such other officers as may be appointed in accordance
with the provisions of Section 5.3 of these bylaws.  Any number of offices may
be held by the same person.

       In addition to the Corporate Officers of the Company described above,
there may also be such Administrative Officers of the corporation as may be
designated and appointed from time to time by the president of the corporation
in accordance with the provisions of Section 5.12 of these bylaws.

       5.2     ELECTION OF OFFICERS

       The Corporate Officers of the corporation, except such officers as may
be appointed in accordance with the provisions of Section 5.3 or Section 5.5 of
these bylaws, shall be chosen by the board of directors, subject to the rights,
if any, of an officer under any contract of employment, and shall hold their
respective offices for such terms as the board of directors may from time to
time determine.


                                         -12-


       5.3     SUBORDINATE OFFICERS

       The board of directors may appoint, or may empower the president to
appoint, such other Corporate Officers as the business of the corporation may
require, each of whom shall hold office for such period, have such power and
authority, and perform such duties as are provided in these bylaws or as the
board of directors may from time to time determine.

       The president may from time to time designate and appoint Administrative
Officers of the corporation in accordance with the provisions of Section 5.12 of
these bylaws.

       5.4     REMOVAL AND RESIGNATION OF OFFICERS

       Subject to the rights, if any, of a Corporate Officer under any contract
of employment, any Corporate Officer may be removed, either with or without
cause, by the board of directors at any regular or special meeting of the board
or, except in case of a Corporate Officer chosen by the board of directors, by
any Corporate Officer upon whom such power of removal may be conferred by the
board of directors.

       Any Corporate Officer may resign at any time by giving written notice to
the corporation.  Any resignation shall take effect at the date of the receipt
of that notice or at any later time specified in that notice; and, unless
otherwise specified in that notice, the acceptance of the resignation shall not
be necessary to make it effective.  Any resignation is without prejudice to the
rights, if any, of the corporation under any contract to which the Corporate
Officer is a party.

       Any Administrative Officer designated and appointed by the president may
be removed, either with or without cause, at any time by the president.  Any
Administrative Officer may resign at any time by giving written notice to the
president or to the secretary of the corporation.

       5.5     VACANCIES IN OFFICES

       A vacancy in any office because of death, resignation, removal,
disqualification or any other cause shall be filled in the manner prescribed in
these bylaws for regular appointments to that office.

       5.6     CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD

       The chairman of the board, if such an officer be elected, shall, if
present, preside at meetings of the board of directors and exercise such other
powers and perform such other duties as may from time to time be assigned to him
by the board of directors or as may be prescribed by these bylaws.  If there is
no president, then the chairman of the board shall also be the chief executive
officer of the corporation and shall have the powers and duties prescribed in
Section 5.7 of these bylaws.

       5.7     PRESIDENT


                                         -13-


       Subject to such supervisory powers, if any, as may be given by the board
of directors to the chairman of the board, if there be such an officer, the
president shall be the chief executive officer of the corporation and shall,
subject to the control of the board of directors, have general supervision,
direction and control of the business and the officers of the corporation.  He
or she shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and, in the absence or
nonexistence of a chairman of the board, at all meetings of the board of
directors.  He or she shall have the general powers and duties of management
usually vested in the office of president of a corporation, and shall have such
other powers and perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the board of
directors or these bylaws.

       5.8     VICE PRESIDENTS

       In the absence or disability of the president, and if there is no
chairman of the board, the vice presidents, if any, in order of their rank as
fixed by the board of directors or, if not ranked, a vice president designated
by the board of directors, shall perform all the duties of the president and
when so acting shall have all the powers of, and be subject to all the
restrictions upon, the president.  The vice presidents shall have such other
powers and perform such other duties as from time to time may be prescribed for
them respectively by the board of directors, these bylaws, the president or the
chairman of the board.

       5.9     SECRETARY

       The secretary shall keep or cause to be kept, at the principal executive
office of the corporation or such other place as the board of directors may
direct, a book of minutes of all meetings and actions of the board of directors,
committees of directors and stockholders.  The minutes shall show the time and
place of each meeting, whether regular or special (and, if special, how
authorized and the notice given), the names of those present at directors'
meetings or committee meetings, the number of shares present or represented at
stockholders' meetings and the proceedings thereof.

       The secretary shall keep, or cause to be kept, at the principal
executive office of the corporation or at the office of the corporation's
transfer agent or registrar, as determined by resolution of the board of
directors, a share register or a duplicate share register, showing the names of
all stockholders and their addresses, the number and classes of shares held by
each, the number and date of certificates evidencing such shares and the number
and date of cancellation of every certificate surrendered for cancellation.

       The secretary shall give, or cause to be given, notice of all meetings
of the stockholders and of the board of directors required to be given by law or
by these bylaws.  He or she shall keep the seal of the corporation, if one be
adopted, in safe custody and shall have such other powers and perform such other
duties as may be prescribed by the board of directors or by these bylaws.

       5.10    CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER


                                         -14-


       The chief financial officer shall keep and maintain, or cause to be kept
and maintained, adequate and correct books and records of accounts of the
properties and business transactions of the corporation, including accounts of
its assets, liabilities, receipts, disbursements, gains, losses, capital,
retained earnings and shares.  The books of account shall at all reasonable
times be open to inspection by any director for a purpose reasonably related to
his position as a director.

       The chief financial officer shall deposit all money and other valuables
in the name and to the credit of the corporation with such depositaries as may
be designated by the board of directors. He or she shall disburse the funds of
the corporation as may be ordered by the board of directors, shall render to the
president and directors, whenever they request it, an account of all of his or
her transactions as chief financial officer and of the financial condition of
the corporation, and shall have such other powers and perform such other duties
as may be prescribed by the board of directors or these bylaws.

       5.11    ASSISTANT SECRETARY

       The assistant secretary, if any, or, if there is more than one, the
assistant secretaries in the order determined by the board of directors (or if
there be no such determination, then in the order of their election) shall, in
the absence of the secretary or in the event of his or her inability or refusal
to act, perform the duties and exercise the powers of the secretary and shall
perform such other duties and have such other powers as the board of directors
may from time to time prescribe.

       5.12    ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICERS

       In addition to the Corporate Officers of the corporation as provided in
Section 5.1 of these bylaws and such subordinate Corporate Officers as may be
appointed in accordance with Section 5.3 of these bylaws, there may also be such
Administrative Officers of the corporation as may be designated and appointed
from time to time by the president of the corporation.  Administrative Officers
shall perform such duties and have such powers as from time to time may be
determined by the president or the board of directors in order to assist the
Corporate Officers in the furtherance of their duties.  In the performance of
such duties and the exercise of such powers, however, such Administrative
Officers shall have limited authority to act on behalf of the corporation as the
board of directors shall establish, including but not limited to limitations on
the dollar amount and on the scope of agreements or commitments that may be made
by such Administrative Officers on behalf of the corporation, which limitations
may not be exceeded by such individuals or altered by the president without
further approval by the board of directors.

       5.13    AUTHORITY AND DUTIES OF OFFICERS

       In addition to the foregoing powers, authority and duties, all officers
of the corporation shall respectively have such authority and powers and perform
such duties in the management of the business of the corporation as may be
designated from time to time by the board of directors.


                                         -15-


                                      ARTICLE VI

                  INDEMNIFICATION OF DIRECTORS, OFFICERS, EMPLOYEES
                                   AND OTHER AGENTS


       6.1     INDEMNIFICATION OF DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS

       The corporation shall, to the maximum extent and in the manner permitted
by the General Corporation Law of Delaware as the same now exists or may
hereafter be amended, indemnify any person against expenses (including
attorneys' fees), judgments, fines, and amounts paid in settlement actually and
reasonably incurred in connection with any threatened, pending or completed
action, suit, or proceeding in which such person was or is a party or is
threatened to be made a party by reason of the fact that such person is or was a
director or officer of the corporation.  For purposes of this Section 6.1, a
'director' or 'officer' of the corporation shall mean any person (i) who is or
was a director or officer of the corporation, (ii) who is or was serving at the
request of the corporation as a director or officer of another corporation,
partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, or (iii) who was a
director or officer of a corporation which was a predecessor corporation of the
corporation or of another enterprise at the request of such predecessor
corporation.

       The corporation shall be required to indemnify a director or officer in
connection with an action, suit, or proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by
such director or officer only if the initiation of such action, suit, or
proceeding (or part thereof) by the director or officer was authorized by the
board of Directors of the corporation.

       The corporation shall pay the expenses (including attorney's fees)
incurred by a director or officer of the corporation entitled to indemnification
hereunder in defending any action, suit or proceeding referred to in this
Section 6.1 in advance of its final disposition; provided, however, that payment
of expenses incurred by a director or officer of the corporation in advance of
the final disposition of such action, suit or proceeding shall be made only upon
receipt of an undertaking by the director or officer to repay all amounts
advanced if it should ultimately be determined that the director or officer is
not entitled to be indemnified under this Section 6.1 or otherwise.

       If a claim for indemnification or payment of expenses under this Article
is not paid in full within sixty days after a written claim therefor has been
received by the corporation the claimant may file suit to recover the unpaid
amount of such claim and, if successful in whole or in part, shall be entitled
to be paid the expense of prosecuting such claim.  In any such action the
corporation shall have the burden of proving that the claimant was not entitled
to the requested indemnification or payment of expenses under applicable law.

       The rights conferred on any person by this Article shall not be
exclusive of any other rights which such person may have or hereafter acquire
under any statute, provision of the corporation's


                                         -16-


Certificate of Incorporation, these bylaws, agreement, vote of the stockholders
or disinterested directors or otherwise.

       Any repeal or modification of the foregoing provisions of this Article
shall not adversely affect any right or protection hereunder of any person in
respect of any act or omission occurring prior to the time of such repeal or
modification.

       6.2     INDEMNIFICATION OF OTHERS

       The corporation shall have the power, to the maximum extent and in the
manner permitted by the General Corporation Law of Delaware as the same now
exists or may hereafter be amended, to indemnify any person (other than
directors and officers) against expenses (including attorneys' fees), judgments,
fines, and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred in
connection with any threatened, pending or completed action, suit, or
proceeding, in which such person was or is a party or is threatened to be made a
party by reason of the fact that such person is or was an employee or agent of
the corporation.  The corporation's obligation, if any, to indemnify any person
who was or is serving at its request as a director, officer, employee or agent
of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, enterprise or
non-profit entity shall be reduced by any amount such person may collect as
indemnification from such other corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust,
enterprise or non-profit enterprise.  For purposes of this Section 6.2, an
'employee' or 'agent' of the corporation (other than a director or officer)
shall mean any person (i) who is or was an employee or agent of the corporation,
(ii) who is or was serving at the request of the corporation as an employee or
agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other
enterprise, or (iii) who was an employee or agent of a corporation which was a
predecessor corporation of the corporation or of another enterprise at the
request of such predecessor corporation.

       6.3     INSURANCE

       The corporation may purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any
person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation,
or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer,
employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or
other enterprise against any liability asserted against him or her and incurred
by him or her in any such capacity, or arising out of his or her status as such,
whether or not the corporation would have the power to indemnify him or her
against such liability under the provisions of the General Corporation Law of
Delaware.


                                         -17-


                                     ARTICLE VII

                                 RECORDS AND REPORTS


       7.1     MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION OF RECORDS

       The corporation shall, either at its principal executive office or at
such place or places as designated by the board of directors, keep a record of
its stockholders listing their names and addresses and the number and class of
shares held by each stockholder, a copy of these bylaws as amended to date,
accounting books and other records of its business and properties.

       Any stockholder of record, in person or by attorney or other agent,
shall, upon written demand under oath stating the purpose thereof, have the
right during the usual hours for business to inspect for any proper purpose the
corporation's stock ledger, a list of its stockholders, and its other books and
records and to make copies or extracts therefrom.  A proper purpose shall mean a
purpose reasonably related to such person's interest as a stockholder.  In every
instance where an attorney or other agent is the person who seeks the right to
inspection, the demand under oath shall be accompanied by a power of attorney or
such other writing that authorizes the attorney or other agent to so act on
behalf of the stockholder. The demand under oath shall be directed to the
corporation at its registered office in Delaware or at its principal place of
business.

       7.2     INSPECTION BY DIRECTORS

       Any director shall have the right to examine the corporation's stock
ledger, a list of its stockholders and its other books and records for a purpose
reasonably related to his or her position as a director.

       7.3     ANNUAL STATEMENT TO STOCKHOLDERS

       The board of directors shall present at each annual meeting, and at any
special meeting of the stockholders when called for by vote of the stockholders,
a full and clear statement of the business and condition of the corporation.

       7.4     REPRESENTATION OF SHARES OF OTHER CORPORATIONS

       The chairman of the board, if any, the president, any vice president,
the chief financial officer, the secretary or any assistant secretary of this
corporation, or any other person authorized by the board of directors or the
president or a vice president, is authorized to vote, represent and exercise on
behalf of this corporation all rights incident to any and all shares of the
stock of any other corporation or corporations standing in the name of this
corporation.  The authority herein granted may be exercised either by such
person directly or by any other person authorized to do so by proxy or power of
attorney duly executed by such person having the authority.


                                         -18-


       7.5     CERTIFICATION AND INSPECTION OF BYLAWS

       The original or a copy of these bylaws, as amended or otherwise altered
to date, certified by the secretary, shall be kept at the corporation's
principal executive office and shall be open to inspection by the stockholders
of the corporation, at all reasonable times during office hours.


                                     ARTICLE VIII

                                   GENERAL MATTERS


       8.1     RECORD DATE FOR PURPOSES OTHER THAN NOTICE AND VOTING

       For purposes of determining the stockholders entitled to receive payment
of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights or the
stockholders entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change,
conversion or exchange of stock, or for the purpose of any other lawful action,
the board of directors may fix, in advance, a record date, which shall not
precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted and
which shall not be more than sixty (60) days before any such action.  In that
case, only stockholders of record at the close of business on the date so fixed
are entitled to receive the dividend, distribution or allotment of rights, or to
exercise such rights, as the case may be, notwithstanding any transfer of any
shares on the books of the corporation after the record date so fixed, except as
otherwise provided by law.

       If the board of directors does not so fix a record date, then the record
date for determining stockholders for any such purpose shall be at the close of
business on the day on which the board of directors adopts the applicable
resolution.

       8.2     CHECKS; DRAFTS; EVIDENCES OF INDEBTEDNESS

       From time to time, the board of directors shall determine by resolution
which person or persons may sign or endorse all checks, drafts, other orders for
payment of money, notes or other evidences of indebtedness that are issued in
the name of or payable to the corporation, and only the persons so authorized
shall sign or endorse those instruments.

       8.3     CORPORATE CONTRACTS AND INSTRUMENTS:  HOW EXECUTED

       The board of directors, except as otherwise provided in these bylaws,
may authorize and empower any officer or officers, or agent or agents, to enter
into any contract or execute any instrument in the name of and on behalf of the
corporation; such power and authority may be general or confined to specific
instances.  Unless so authorized or ratified by the board of directors or within
the agency power of an officer, no officer, agent or employee shall have any
power or authority to


                                         -19-


bind the corporation by any contract or engagement or to pledge its credit or to
render it liable for any purpose or for any amount.

       8.4     STOCK CERTIFICATES; TRANSFER; PARTLY PAID SHARES

       The shares of the corporation shall be represented by certificates,
provided that the board of directors of the corporation may provide by
resolution or resolutions that some or all of any or all classes or series of
its stock shall be uncertificated shares.  Any such resolution shall not apply
to shares represented by a certificate until such certificate is surrendered to
the corporation.  Notwithstanding the adoption of such a resolution by the board
of directors, every holder of stock represented by certificates and, upon
request, every holder of uncertificated shares, shall be entitled to have a
certificate signed by, or in the name of the corporation by, the chairman or
vice-chairman of the board of directors, or the president or vice-president, and
by the treasurer or an assistant treasurer, or the secretary or an assistant
secretary of such corporation representing the number of shares registered in
certificate form.  Any or all of the signatures on the certificate may be a
facsimile.  In case any officer, transfer agent or registrar who has signed or
whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate has ceased to be
such officer, transfer agent or registrar before such certificate is issued, it
may be issued by the corporation with the same effect as if he or she were such
officer, transfer agent or registrar at the date of issue.

       Certificates for shares shall be of such form and device as the board of
directors may designate and shall state the name of the record holder of the
shares represented thereby; its number; date of issuance; the number of shares
for which it is issued; a summary statement or reference to the powers,
designations, preferences or other special rights of such stock and the
qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights,
if any; a statement or summary of liens, if any; a conspicuous notice of
restrictions upon transfer or registration of transfer, if any; a statement as
to any applicable voting trust agreement; if the shares be assessable, or, if
assessments are collectible by personal action, a plain statement of such facts.

       Upon surrender to the secretary or transfer agent of the corporation of
a certificate for shares duly endorsed or accompanied by proper evidence of
succession, assignment or authority to transfer, it shall be the duty of the
corporation to issue a new certificate to the person entitled thereto, cancel
the old certificate and record the transaction upon its books.

       The corporation may issue the whole or any part of its shares as partly
paid and subject to call for the remainder of the consideration to be paid
therefor.  Upon the face or back of each stock certificate issued to represent
any such partly paid shares, or upon the books and records of the corporation in
the case of uncertificated partly paid shares, the total amount of the
consideration to be paid therefor and the amount paid thereon shall be stated.
Upon the declaration of any dividend on fully paid shares, the corporation shall
declare a dividend upon partly paid shares of the same class, but only upon the
basis of the percentage of the consideration actually paid thereon.


                                         -20-


       8.5     SPECIAL DESIGNATION ON CERTIFICATES

       If the corporation is authorized to issue more than one class of stock
or more than one series of any class, then the powers, the designations, the
preferences and the relative, participating, optional or other special rights of
each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or
restrictions of such preferences and/or rights shall be set forth in full or
summarized on the face or back of the certificate that the corporation shall
issue to represent such class or series of stock; provided, however, that,
except as otherwise provided in Section 202 of the General Corporation Law of
Delaware, in lieu of the foregoing requirements there may be set forth on the
face or back of the certificate that the corporation shall issue to represent
such class or series of stock a statement that the corporation will furnish
without charge to each stockholder who so requests the powers, the designations,
the preferences and the relative, participating, optional or other special
rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications,
limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights.

       8.6     LOST CERTIFICATES

       Except as provided in this Section 8.6, no new certificates for shares
shall be issued to replace a previously issued certificate unless the latter is
surrendered to the corporation and cancelled at the same time.  The board of
directors may, in case any share certificate or certificate for any other
security is lost, stolen or destroyed, authorize the issuance of replacement
certificates on such terms and conditions as the board may require; the board
may require indemnification of the corporation secured by a bond or other
adequate security sufficient to protect the corporation against any claim that
may be made against it, including any expense or liability, on account of the
alleged loss, theft or destruction of the certificate or the issuance of the
replacement certificate.

       8.7     TRANSFER AGENTS AND REGISTRARS

       The board of directors may appoint one or more transfer agents or
transfer clerks, and one or more registrars, each of which shall be an
incorporated bank or trust company -- either domestic or foreign, who shall be
appointed at such times and places as the requirements of the corporation may
necessitate and the board of directors may designate.

       8.8     CONSTRUCTION; DEFINITIONS

       Unless the context requires otherwise, the general provisions, rules of
construction and definitions in the General Corporation Law of Delaware shall
govern the construction of these bylaws.  Without limiting the generality of
this provision, as used in these bylaws, the singular number includes the
plural, the plural number includes the singular, and the term 'person' includes
both an entity and a natural person.


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                                      ARTICLE IX

                                      AMENDMENTS


       Any of these Bylaws may be altered, amended or repealed by the
affirmative vote of a majority of the members of the board of directors or, with
respect to Bylaw amendments, excluding amendments relating to Sections 2.2, 2.3,
2.9 or Article VI, placed before the stockholders for approval and except as
otherwise provided herein or required by law, by the affirmative vote of the
holders of a majority of the shares of the corporation's stock entitled to vote,
voting as one class, and with respect to Bylaw amendments relating to Sections
2.2, 2.3, 2.9 or Article VI placed before the stockholders for approval and
except as otherwise provided herein or required by law, by the affirmative vote
of the holders of at least two-thirds of the shares of the corporation's stock
entitled to vote, voting as one class.

       Whenever an amendment or new bylaw is adopted, it shall be copied in the
book of bylaws with the original bylaws, in the appropriate place.  If any bylaw
is repealed, the fact of repeal with the date of the meeting at which the repeal
was enacted or the filing of the operative written consent(s) shall be stated in
said book.


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