Bylaws - VISX Inc.


                                     BYLAWS
                                       OF
                               VISX, INCORPORATED
                       (AS AMENDED ON DECEMBER 12, 2001)

                                    ARTICLE I

                                CORPORATE OFFICES

I.1 Registered Office

        The registered office of the corporation shall be in the City of Dover,
County of Kent, State of Delaware. The name of the registered agent of the
corporation at such location is The Corporation Trust Company.

I.2 Other Offices

        The board of directors may at any time establish other offices at any
place or places where the corporation is qualified to do business.

                                   ARTICLE II

                            MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS

II.1 Place of Meetings

        Meetings of stockholders shall be held at any place, within or outside
the State of Delaware, designated by the board of directors. In the absence of
any such designation, stockholders' meetings shall be held at the registered
office of the corporation.

II.2 Annual Meeting

        The annual meeting of stockholders shall be held each year on a date and
at a time designated by the board of directors. In the absence of such
designation, the annual meeting of stockholders shall be held on the third
Friday of May in each year at 9:00 a.m. However, if such day falls on a legal
holiday, then the meeting shall be held at the same time and place on the next
succeeding full business day. At the meeting, directors shall be elected and any
other proper business may be transacted.




II.3 Special Meeting

        A special meeting of the stockholders may be called at any time by the
board of directors, or by the chairman of the board, or by the president. No
other person or persons are permitted to call a special meeting.

        If a special meeting is called by the chairman of the board or the
president, then the request shall be in writing, specifying the time of such
meeting and the general nature of the business proposed to be transacted, and
shall be delivered personally or sent by registered mail or by telegraphic or
other facsimile transmission to the chairman of the board, the president, or the
secretary of the corporation. The officer receiving the request shall cause
notice to be promptly given to the stockholders entitled to vote, in accordance
with the provisions of Sections II.4 and II.6 of these bylaws, that a meeting
will be held at the time requested by the person or persons calling the meeting,
so long as that time is not less than thirty-five (35) nor more than sixty (60)
days after the receipt of the request. If the notice is not given within twenty
(20) days after receipt of the request, then the person or persons requesting
the meeting may give the notice. Nothing contained in this paragraph of this
Section II.3 shall be construed as limiting, fixing or affecting the time when a
meeting of stockholders called by action of the board of directors may be held.

II.4 Notice of Stockholders' Meetings

        All notices of meetings with stockholders shall be in writing and shall
be sent or otherwise given in accordance with Section II.6 of these bylaws not
less than ten (10) nor more than sixty (60) days before the date of the meeting
to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting. The notice shall specify
the place, date, and hour of the meeting, and, in the case of a special meeting,
the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called.

II.5 Advance Notice of Stockholder Nominees and Stockholder Business

        Subject to the rights of holders of any class or series of stock having
a preference over the Common Stock as to dividends or upon liquidation,

        (i) nominations for the election of directors, and

        (ii) business proposed to be brought before any stockholder meeting

may be made by the board of directors or proxy committee appointed by the board
of directors or by any stockholder entitled to vote in the election of directors
generally if such nomination or business proposed is otherwise proper business
before such meeting. However, any such stockholder may nominate one or more
persons for election as directors at a meeting or propose business to be brought
before a meeting, or both, but only if such stockholder has given timely notice
in proper written form of such stockholder's intent to make such nomination or
nominations or to propose such business. To be timely, such stockholder's notice
must be delivered to or mailed and received at the principal executive offices
of the corporation not less than one hundred twenty (120) calendar days in
advance of the date specified in the corporation's proxy statement released to
stockholders in connection with the previous year's annual meeting of
stockholders; provided, however, that in the event that no annual meeting was
held in the previous year or the date of the




annual meeting has been changed by more than thirty (30) days from the date
contemplated at the time of the previous year's proxy statement, notice by the
stockholder to be timely must be so received a reasonable time before the
solicitation is made. To be in proper form, a stockholder's notice to the
secretary shall set forth:

        (i) the name and address of the stockholder who intends to make the
nominations or propose the business and, as the case may be, of the person or
persons to be nominated or of the business to be proposed;

        (ii) a representation that the stockholder is a holder of record of
stock of the corporation entitled to vote at such meeting and, if applicable,
intends to appear in person or by proxy at the meeting to nominate the person or
persons specified in the notice;

        (iii) if applicable, a description of all arrangements or understandings
between the stockholder and each nominee and any other person or persons (naming
such person or persons) pursuant to which the nomination or nominations are to
be made by the stockholder;

        (iv) such other information regarding each nominee or each matter of
business to be proposed by such stockholder as would be required to be included
in a proxy statement filed pursuant to the proxy rules of the Securities and
Exchange Commission had the nominee been nominated, or intended to be nominated,
or the matter been proposed, or intended to be proposed by the board of
directors; and

        (v) if applicable, the consent of each nominee to serve as director of
the corporation if so elected.

        The chairman of the meeting shall refuse to acknowledge the nomination
of any person or the proposal of any business not made in compliance with the
foregoing procedure.

II.6 Manner of Giving Notice; Affidavit of Notice

        Written notice of any meeting of stockholders, if mailed, is given when
deposited in the United States mail, postage prepaid, directed to the
stockholder at his address as it appears on the records of the corporation. An
affidavit of the secretary or an assistant secretary or of the transfer agent of
the corporation that the notice has been given shall, in the absence of fraud,
be prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein.

II.7 Quorum

        The holders of a majority of the stock issued and outstanding and
entitled to vote thereat, present in person or represented by proxy, shall
constitute a quorum at all meetings of the stockholders for the transaction of
business except as otherwise provided by statute or by the certificate of
incorporation. If, however, such quorum is not present or represented at any
meeting of the stockholders, then the stockholders entitled to vote thereat,
present in person or represented by proxy, shall have power to adjourn the
meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the
meeting, until a quorum is present or represented. At such adjourned meeting at
which a quorum is present or represented, any business may be transacted that
might have been transacted at the meeting as originally noticed.




II.8 Adjourned Meeting; Notice

        When a meeting is adjourned to another time or place, unless these
bylaws otherwise require, notice need not be given of the adjourned meeting if
the time and place thereof are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment
is taken. At the adjourned meeting the corporation may transact any business
that might have been transacted at the original meeting. If the adjournment is
for more than thirty (30) days, or if after the adjournment a new record date is
fixed for the adjourned meeting, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be
given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting.

II.9 Voting

        The stockholders entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders shall
be determined in accordance with the provisions of Section II.11 of these
bylaws, subject to the provisions of Sections 217 and 218 of the General
Corporation Law of Delaware (relating to voting rights of fiduciaries, pledgors
and joint owners of stock and to voting trusts and other voting agreements).

        Except as may otherwise be provided in the certificate of incorporation
or these bylaws, each stockholder shall be entitled to one vote for each share
of capital stock held by such stockholder and stockholders shall not be entitled
to cumulate their votes in the election of directors or with respect to any
matter submitted to a vote of stockholders.

II.10 Waiver of Notice

        Whenever notice is required to be given under any provision of the
General Corporation Law of Delaware or of the certificate of incorporation or
these bylaws, a written waiver thereof, signed by the person entitled to notice,
whether before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent to
notice. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice
of such meeting, except when the person attends a meeting for the express
purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any
business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the
business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting
of the stockholders need be specified in any written waiver of notice unless so
required by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws.

II.11 Stockholder Action by Written Consent Without a Meeting

        Unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation, any
action required by this chapter to be taken at any annual or special meeting of
stockholders of a corporation, or any action that may be taken at any annual or
special meeting of such stockholders, may be taken without a meeting, without
prior notice, and without a vote if a consent in writing, setting forth the
action so taken, is signed by the holders of outstanding stock having not less
than the minimum number of votes that would be necessary to authorize or take
such action at a meeting at which all shares entitled to vote thereon were
present and voted.

        Prompt notice of the taking of the corporate action without a meeting by
less than unanimous written consent shall be given to those stockholders who
have not consented in writing. If the action which is consented to is such as
would have required the filing of a certificate under




any section of the General Corporation Law of Delaware if such action had been
voted on by stockholders at a meeting thereof, then the certificate filed under
such section shall state, in lieu of any statement required by such section
concerning any vote of stockholders, that written notice and written consent
have been given as provided in Section 228 of the General Corporation Law of
Delaware.

II.12 Record Date for Stockholder Notice; Voting; Giving Consents

        In order that the corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to
notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof,
or entitled to express consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting,
or entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or
allotment of any rights, or entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any
change, conversion or exchange of stock or for the purpose of any other lawful
action, the board of directors may fix, in advance, a record date, which shall
not be more than sixty (60) nor less than ten (10) days before the date of such
meeting, nor more than sixty (60) days prior to any other action. Any
stockholder of record seeking to have the stockholders authorize or take
corporate action by written consent shall, by written notice to the secretary,
request the board of directors to fix a record date. The board of directors
shall promptly, but in all events within ten (10) days after the date on which
such a request is received, adopt a resolution fixing the record date.

        If the board of directors does not so fix a record date:

        (i) The record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of
or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the
day next preceding the day on which notice is given, or, if notice is waived, at
the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is
held.

        (ii) The record date for determining stockholders entitled to express
consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting, when no prior action
by the board of directors is necessary, shall be the first date on which a
signed written consent setting forth the action taken or proposed to be taken is
delivered to the corporation by delivery to its registered office in the State
of Delaware, its principal place of business, or any officer or agent of the
corporation having custody of the book in which such proceedings of
stockholders' meetings are recorded, to the attention of the secretary of the
corporation. Delivery shall be by hand or by certified or registered mail,
return receipt requested. If no record date has been fixed by the board of
directors and prior action by the board of directors is required by applicable
law, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to consent to
corporate action in writing without a meeting shall be at the close of business
on the date on which the board of directors adopts the resolution taking such
prior action.

        (iii) The record date for determining stockholders for any other purpose
shall be at the close of business on the day on which the board of directors
adopts the resolution relating thereto.

        A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to
vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting;
provided, however, that the board of directors may fix a new record date for the
adjourned meeting.




II.13 Proxies

        Each stockholder entitled to vote at a meeting of stockholders or to
express consent or dissent to corporate action in writing without a meeting may
authorize another person or persons to act for him by a written proxy, signed by
the stockholder and filed with the secretary of the corporation, but no such
proxy shall be voted or acted upon after three (3) years from its date, unless
the proxy provides for a longer period. A proxy shall be deemed signed if the
stockholder's name is placed on the proxy (whether by manual signature,
typewriting, telegraphic transmission or otherwise) by the stockholder or the
stockholder's attorney-in-fact. The revocability of a proxy that states on its
face that it is irrevocable shall be governed by the provisions of Section
212(c) of the General Corporation Law of Delaware.

II.14 List of Stockholders Entitled to Vote

        The officer who has charge of the stock ledger of a corporation shall
prepare and make, at least ten (10) days before every meeting of stockholders, a
complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, arranged in
alphabetical order, and showing the address of each stockholder and the number
of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. Such list shall be open to
the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting,
during ordinary business hours, for a period of at least ten (10) days prior to
the meeting, either at a place within the city where the meeting is to be held,
which place shall be specified in the notice of the meeting, or, if not so
specified, at the place where the meeting is to be held. The list shall also be
produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time
thereof, and may be inspected by any stockholder who is present.

                                   ARTICLE III

                                    DIRECTORS

III.1 Powers

        Subject to the provisions of the General Corporation Law of Delaware and
any limitations in the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws relating to
action required to be approved by the stockholders or by the outstanding shares,
the business and affairs of the corporation shall be managed and all corporate
powers shall be exercised by or under the direction of the board of directors.

III.2 Number of Directors

        The number of directors of this corporation shall be seven (7), until
changed by an amendment to this bylaw adopted as provided herein. The number of
directors may be changed by an amendment to this bylaw, duly adopted by the
board of directors or by the stockholders, or by a duly adopted amendment to the
certificate of incorporation. No reduction of the authorized number of directors
shall have the effect of removing any director before that director's term of
office expires.




III.3 Election, Qualification and Term of Office of Directors

        Except as provided in Section III.4 of these bylaws, directors shall be
elected at each annual meeting of stockholders to hold office until the next
annual meeting. Directors need not be stockholders unless so required by the
certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, wherein other qualifications for
directors may be prescribed. Each director, including a director elected to fill
a vacancy, shall hold office until his successor is elected and qualified or
until his earlier resignation or removal. Elections of directors need not be by
written ballot.

III.4 Resignation and Vacancies

        Any director may resign at any time upon written notice to the
corporation. When one or more directors so resigns and the resignation is
effective at a future date, a majority of the directors then in office,
including those who have so resigned, shall have power to fill such vacancy or
vacancies, the vote thereon to take effect when such resignation or resignations
shall become effective, and each director so chosen shall hold office as
provided in this section in the filling of other vacancies.

        Unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation or these
bylaws:

        (i) Vacancies and newly created directorships resulting from any
increase in the authorized number of directors elected by all of the
stockholders having the right to vote as a single class may be filled by a
majority of the directors then in office, although less than a quorum, or by a
sole remaining director.

        (ii) Whenever the holders of any class or classes of stock or series
thereof are entitled to elect one or more directors by the provisions of the
certificate of incorporation, vacancies and newly created directorships of such
class or classes or series may be filled by a majority of the directors elected
by such class or classes or series thereof then in office, or by a sole
remaining director so elected.

        If at any time, by reason of death or resignation or other cause, the
corporation should have no directors in office, then any officer or any
stockholder or an executor, administrator, trustee or guardian of a stockholder,
or other fiduciary entrusted with like responsibility for the person or estate
of a stockholder, may call a special meeting of stockholders in accordance with
the provisions of the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, or may apply
to the Court of Chancery for a decree summarily ordering an election as provided
in Section 211 of the General Corporation Law of Delaware.

        If, at the time of filling any vacancy or any newly created
directorship, the directors then in office constitute less than a majority of
the whole board (as constituted immediately prior to any such increase), then
the Court of Chancery may, upon application of any stockholder or stockholders
holding at least ten (10) percent of the total number of the shares at the time
outstanding having the right to vote for such directors, summarily order an
election to be held to fill any such vacancies or newly created directorships,
or to replace the directors chosen by the directors then in office as aforesaid,
which election shall be governed by the provisions of Section 211 of the General
Corporation Law of Delaware as far as applicable.




III.5 Place of Meetings; Meetings by Telephone

        The board of directors of the corporation may hold meetings, both
regular and special, either within or outside the State of Delaware.

        Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation or these
bylaws, members of the board of directors, or any committee designated by the
board of directors, may participate in a meeting of the board of directors, or
any committee, by means of conference telephone or similar communications
equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear
each other, and such participation in a meeting shall constitute presence in
person at the meeting.

III.6 First Meetings

        The first meeting of each newly elected board of directors shall be held
at such time and place as shall be specified in a notice given as hereinafter
provided for special meetings of the board of directors, or as shall be
specified in a written waiver signed by all of the directors.

III.7 Regular Meetings

        Regular meetings of the board of directors may be held without notice at
such time and at such place as shall from time to time be determined by the
board.

III.8 Special Meetings; Notice

        Special meetings of the board of directors for any purpose or purposes
may be called at any time by the chairman of the board, the president, any vice
president, the secretary or any two directors.

        Notice of the time and place of special meetings shall be delivered
personally or by telephone to each director or sent by first-class mail,
overnight delivery service, telecopy or telegram, charges prepaid, addressed to
each director at that director's address as it is shown on the records of the
corporation. If the notice is mailed, it shall be deposited in the United States
mail at least four (4) days before the time of the holding of the meeting. If
the notice is delivered personally or by overnight courier, telephone, telecopy
or telegram, it shall be delivered personally or by overnight courier, telephone
or telecopier or to the telegraph company at least forty-eight (48) hours before
the time of the holding of the meeting. Any oral notice given personally or by
overnight courier, telecopier or telephone may be communicated either to the
director or to a person at the office of the director who the person giving the
notice has reason to believe will promptly communicate it to the director. The
notice need not specify the purpose or the place of the meeting, if the meeting
is to be held at the principal executive office of the corporation.

III.9 Quorum

        At all meetings of the board of directors, a majority of the authorized
number of directors shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business
and the act of a majority of the directors present at any meeting at which there
is a quorum shall be the act of the board of directors, except as may be
otherwise specifically provided by statute or by the certificate of
incorporation. If a




quorum is not present at any meeting of the board of directors, then the
directors present thereat may adjourn the meeting from time to time, without
notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum is present.

III.10 Waiver of Notice

        Whenever notice is required to be given under any provision of the
General Corporation Law of Delaware or of the certificate of incorporation or
these bylaws, a written waiver thereof, signed by the person entitled to notice,
whether before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent to
notice. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice
of such meeting, except when the person attends a meeting for the express
purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any
business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the
business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting
of the directors, or members of a committee of directors, need be specified in
any written waiver of notice unless so required by the certificate of
incorporation or these bylaws.

III.11 Adjourned Meeting; Notice

        If a quorum is not present at any meeting of the board of directors,
then the directors present thereat may adjourn the meeting from time to time,
without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum is
present.

III.12 Board Action by Written Consent Without a Meeting

        Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation or these
bylaws, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the board
of directors, or of any committee thereof, may be taken without a meeting if all
members of the board or committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in
writing and the writing or writings are filed with the minutes of proceedings of
the board or committee.

III.13 Fees and Compensation of Directors

        Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation or these
bylaws, the board of directors shall have the authority to fix the compensation
of directors.

III.14 Approval of Loans to Officers

        The corporation may lend money to, or guarantee any obligation of, or
otherwise assist any officer or other employee of the corporation or of its
subsidiary, including any officer or employee who is a director of the
corporation or its subsidiary, whenever, in the judgment of the directors, such
loan, guaranty or assistance may reasonably be expected to benefit the
corporation. The loan, guaranty or other assistance may be with or without
interest and may be unsecured, or secured in such manner as the board of
directors shall approve, including, without limitation, a pledge of shares of
stock of the corporation. Nothing in this section contained shall be deemed to
deny, limit or restrict the powers of guaranty or warranty of the corporation at
common law or under any statute.




III.15 Removal of Directors

        Unless otherwise restricted by statute, by the certificate of
incorporation or by these bylaws, any director or the entire board of directors
may be removed, with or without cause, by the holders of a majority of the
shares then entitled to vote at an election of directors.

        No reduction of the authorized number of directors shall have the effect
of removing any director prior to the expiration of such director's term of
office.

                                   ARTICLE IV

                                   COMMITTEES

IV.1 Committees of Directors

        The board of directors may, by resolution passed by a majority of the
whole board, designate one or more committees, with each committee to consist of
one or more of the directors of the corporation. The board may designate one or
more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent
or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee. In the absence or
disqualification of a member of a committee, the member or members thereof
present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not he or
they constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the board of
directors to act at the meeting in the place of any such absent or disqualified
member. Any such committee, to the extent provided in the resolution of the
board of directors or in the bylaws of the corporation, shall have and may
exercise all the powers and authority of the board of directors in the
management of the business and affairs of the corporation, and may authorize the
seal of the corporation to be affixed to all papers that may require it; but no
such committee shall have the power or authority to (i) amend the certificate of
incorporation (except that a committee may, to the extent authorized in the
resolution or resolutions providing for the issuance of shares of stock adopted
by the board of directors as provided in Section 151(a) of the General
Corporation Law of Delaware, fix any of the preferences or rights of such shares
relating to dividends, redemption, dissolution, any distribution of assets of
the corporation or the conversion into, or the exchange of such shares for,
shares of any other class or classes or any other series of the same or any
other class or classes of stock of the corporation), (ii) adopt an agreement of
merger or consolidation under Sections 251 or 252 of the General Corporation Law
of Delaware, (iii) recommend to the stockholders the sale, lease or exchange of
all or substantially all of the corporation's property and assets, (iv)
recommend to the stockholders a dissolution of the corporation or a revocation
of a dissolution, or (v) amend the bylaws of the corporation; and, unless the
board resolution establishing the committee, the bylaws or the certificate of
incorporation expressly so provide, no such committee shall have the power or
authority to declare a dividend, to authorize the issuance of stock, or to adopt
a certificate of ownership and merger pursuant to Section 253 of the General
Corporation Law of Delaware.

IV.2 Committee Minutes

        Each committee shall keep regular minutes of its meetings and report the
same to the board of directors when required.




IV.3 Meetings and Action of Committees

        Meetings and actions of committees shall be governed by, and held and
taken in accordance with, the provisions of Article III of these bylaws, Section
III.5 (place of meetings and meetings by telephone), Section III.7 (regular
meetings), Section III.8 (special meetings and notice), Section III.9 (quorum),
Section III.10 (waiver of notice), Section III.11 (adjournment and notice of
adjournment), and Section III.12 (action without a meeting), with such changes
in the context of those bylaws as are necessary to substitute the committee and
its members for the board of directors and its members; provided, however, that
the time of regular meetings of committees may also be called by resolution of
the board of directors and that notice of special meetings of committees shall
also be given to all alternate members, who shall have the right to attend all
meetings of the committee. The board of directors may adopt rules for the
government of any committee not inconsistent with the provisions of these
bylaws.

                                   ARTICLE V

                                    OFFICERS

V.1 Officers

        The officers of the corporation shall be a president, one or more vice
presidents, a secretary, and a chief financial officer. The corporation may also
have, at the discretion of the board of directors, a chairman of the board, one
or more assistant vice presidents, assistant secretaries, a treasurer and one or
more assistant treasurers, and any such other officers as may be appointed in
accordance with the provisions of Section V.3 of these bylaws. Any number of
offices may be held by the same person.

V.2 Election of Officers

        The officers of the corporation, except such officers as may be
appointed in accordance with the provisions of Sections V.3 or V.5 of these
bylaws, shall be chosen by the board of directors, subject to the rights, if
any, of an officer under any contract of employment.

V.3 Subordinate Officers

        The board of directors may appoint, or empower the president to appoint,
such other officers and agents as the business of the corporation may require,
each of whom shall hold office for such period, have such authority, and perform
such duties as are provided in these bylaws or as the board of directors may
from time to time determine.

V.4 Removal and Resignation of Officers

        Subject to the rights, if any, of an officer under any contract of
employment, any officer may be removed, either with or without cause, by an
affirmative vote of the majority of the board




of directors at any regular or special meeting of the board or, except in the
case of an officer chosen by the board of directors, by any officer upon whom
such power of removal may be conferred by the board of directors.

        Any officer may resign at any time by giving written notice to the
corporation. Any resignation shall take effect at the date of the receipt of
that notice or at any later time specified in that notice; and, unless otherwise
specified in that notice, the acceptance of the resignation shall not be
necessary to make it effective. Any resignation is without prejudice to the
rights, if any, of the corporation under any contract to which the officer is a
party.

V.5 Vacancies in Offices

        Any vacancy occurring in any office of the corporation shall be filled
by the board of directors.

V.6 Chairman of the Board

        The chairman of the board, if such an officer be elected, shall, if
present, preside at meetings of the board of directors and exercise and perform
such other powers and duties as may from time to time be assigned to him by the
board of directors or as may be prescribed by these bylaws. If there is no
president, then the chairman of the board shall also be the chief executive
officer of the corporation and shall have the powers and duties prescribed in
Section V.7 of these bylaws.

V.7 Chief Executive Officer

        Subject to such supervisory powers, if any, as may be given by the board
of directors to the chairman of the board, if there be such an officer, the
chief executive officer of the corporation, who shall be subject to the control
of the board of directors, shall have general supervision, direction and control
of the business and the officers of the corporation. The chief executive officer
shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and, in the absence or
nonexistence of a chairman of the board, at all meetings of the board of
directors.

V.7 President

        Subject to such supervisory powers, if any, as may be given by the board
of directors to the chairman of the board, if there be such an officer, the
president shall be the chief executive officer of the corporation and shall,
subject to the control of the board of directors, have general supervision,
direction, and control of the business and the officers of the corporation. He
shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and, in the absence or
nonexistence of a chairman of the board, at all meetings of the board of
directors. He shall have the general powers and duties of management usually
vested in the office of president of a corporation and shall have such other
powers and duties as may be prescribed by the board of directors or these
bylaws.

V.8 Vice President

        In the absence or disability of the president, the vice presidents, if
any, in order of their rank as fixed by the board of directors or, if not
ranked, a vice president designated by the board of




directors, shall perform all the duties of the president and when so acting
shall have all the powers of, and be subject to all the restrictions upon, the
president. The vice presidents shall have such other powers and perform such
other duties as from time to time may be prescribed for them respectively by the
board of directors, these bylaws, the president or the chairman of the board.

V.9 Secretary

        The secretary shall keep or cause to be kept, at the principal executive
office of the corporation or such other place as the board of directors may
direct, a book of minutes of all meetings and actions of directors, committees
of directors, and stockholders. The minutes shall show the time and place of
each meeting, whether regular or special (and, if special, how authorized and
the notice given), the names of those present at directors' meetings or
committee meetings, the number of shares present or represented at stockholders'
meetings, and the proceedings thereof.

        The secretary shall keep, or cause to be kept, at the principal
executive office of the corporation or at the office of the corporation's
transfer agent or registrar, as determined by resolution of the board of
directors, a share register, or a duplicate share register, showing the names of
all stockholders and their addresses, the number and classes of shares held by
each, the number and date of certificates evidencing such shares, and the number
and date of cancellation of every certificate surrendered for cancellation.

        The secretary shall give, or cause to be given, notice of all meetings
of the stockholders and of the board of directors required to be given by law or
by these bylaws. He shall keep the seal of the corporation, if one be adopted,
in safe custody and shall have such other powers and perform such other duties
as may be prescribed by the board of directors or by these bylaws.

V.10 Chief Financial Officer

        The chief financial officer shall keep and maintain, or cause to be kept
and maintained, adequate and correct books and records of accounts of the
properties and business transactions of the corporation, including accounts of
its assets, liabilities, receipts, disbursements, gains, losses, capital,
retained earnings, and shares. The books of account shall at all reasonable
times be open to inspection by any director.

        The chief financial officer shall deposit all money and other valuables
in the name and to the credit of the corporation with such depositaries as may
be designated by the board of directors. He shall disburse the funds of the
corporation as may be ordered by the board of directors, shall render to the
president and directors, whenever they request it, an account of all of his
transactions as chief financial officer and of the financial condition of the
corporation, and shall have such other powers and perform such other duties as
may be prescribed by the board of directors or these bylaws.

V.11 Assistant Secretary

        The assistant secretary, or, if there is more than one, the assistant
secretaries in the order determined by the stockholders or board of directors
(or if there be no such determination, then in the order of their election)
shall, in the absence of the secretary or in the event of his or her




inability or refusal to act, perform the duties and exercise the powers of the
secretary and shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the
board of directors or the stockholders may from time to time prescribe.

V.12 Administrative Officers

        In addition to the Corporate Officers of the corporation as provided in
Section V.1 of these bylaws and such subordinate Corporate Officers as may be
appointed in accordance with Section V.3 of these bylaws, there may also be such
Administrative Officers of the corporation as may be designated and appointed
from time to time by the president of the corporation. Administrative Officers
shall perform such duties and have such powers as from time to time may be
determined by the president or the board of directors in order to assist the
Corporate Officers in the furtherance of their duties. In the performance of
such duties and the exercise of such powers, however, such Administrative
Officers shall have limited authority to act on behalf of the corporation as the
board of directors shall establish, including but not limited to limitations on
the dollar amount and on the scope of agreements or commitments that may be made
by such Administrative Officers on behalf of the corporation, which limitations
may not be exceeded by such individuals or altered by the president without
further approval by the board of directors.

V.13 Authority and Duties of Officers

        In addition to the foregoing authority and duties, all officers of the
corporation shall respectively have such authority and perform such duties in
the management of the business of the corporation as may be designated from time
to time by the board of directors or the stockholders.

                                   ARTICLE VI

                                   INDEMNITY

VI.1 Indemnification of Directors and Officers

        The corporation shall, to the maximum extent and in the manner permitted
by the General Corporation Law of Delaware, indemnify each of its directors and
officers against expenses (including attorneys' fees), judgments, fines,
settlements, and other amounts actually and reasonably incurred in connection
with any proceeding, arising by reason of the fact that such person is or was an
agent of the corporation. For purposes of this Section VI.1, a "director" or
"officer" of the corporation includes any person (i) who is or was a director or
officer of the corporation, (ii) who is or was serving at the request of the
corporation as a director or officer of another corporation, partnership, joint
venture, trust or other enterprise, or (iii) who was a director or officer of a
corporation which was a predecessor corporation of the corporation or of another
enterprise at the request of such predecessor corporation.




VI.2 Indemnification of Others

        The corporation shall have the power, to the extent and in the manner
permitted by the General Corporation Law of Delaware, to indemnify each of its
employees and agents (other than directors and officers) against expenses
(including attorneys' fees), judgments, fines, settlements, and other amounts
actually and reasonably incurred in connection with any proceeding, arising by
reason of the fact that such person is or was an agent of the corporation. For
purposes of this Section VI.2, an "employee" or "agent" of the corporation
(other than a director or officer) includes any person (i) who is or was an
employee or agent of the corporation, (ii) who is or was serving at the request
of the corporation as an employee or agent of another corporation, partnership,
joint venture, trust or other enterprise, or (iii) who was an employee or agent
of a corporation which was a predecessor corporation of the corporation or of
another enterprise at the request of such predecessor corporation.

VI.3 Insurance

        The corporation may purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any
person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation,
or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer,
employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or
other enterprise against any liability asserted against him and incurred by him
in any such capacity, or arising out of his status as such, whether or not the
corporation would have the power to indemnify him against such liability under
the provisions of the General Corporation Law of Delaware.

                                   ARTICLE VII

                               RECORDS AND REPORTS

VII.1 Maintenance and Inspection of Records

        The corporation shall, either at its principal executive office or at
such place or places as designated by the board of directors, keep a record of
its stockholders listing their names and addresses and the number and class of
shares held by each stockholder, a copy of these bylaws as amended to date,
accounting books, and other records.

        Any stockholder of record, in person or by attorney or other agent,
shall, upon written demand under oath stating the purpose thereof, have the
right during the usual hours for business to inspect for any proper purpose the
corporation's stock ledger, a list of its stockholders, and its other books and
records and to make copies or extracts therefrom. A proper purpose shall mean a
purpose reasonably related to such person's interest as a stockholder. In every
instance where an attorney or other agent is the person who seeks the right to
inspection, the demand under oath shall be accompanied by a power of attorney or
such other writing that authorizes the attorney or other agent to so act on
behalf of the stockholder. The demand under oath shall be directed to the
corporation at its registered office in Delaware or at its principal place of
business.




        The officer who has charge of the stock ledger of a corporation shall
prepare and make, at least ten (10) days before every meeting of stockholders, a
complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, arranged in
alphabetical order, and showing the address of each stockholder and the number
of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. Such list shall be open to
the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting,
during ordinary business hours, for a period of at least ten (10) days prior to
the meeting, either at a place within the city where the meeting is to be held,
which place shall be specified in the notice of the meeting, or, if not so
specified, at the place where the meeting is to be held. The list shall also be
produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time
thereof, and may be inspected by any stockholder who is present.

VII.2 Inspection by Directors

        Any director shall have the right to examine the corporation's stock
ledger, a list of its stockholders, and its other books and records for a
purpose reasonably related to his position as a director. The Court of Chancery
is hereby vested with the exclusive jurisdiction to determine whether a director
is entitled to the inspection sought. The Court may summarily order the
corporation to permit the director to inspect any and all books and records, the
stock ledger, and the stock list and to make copies or extracts therefrom. The
Court may, in its discretion, prescribe any limitations or conditions with
reference to the inspection, or award such other and further relief as the Court
may deem just and proper.

VII.3 Representation of Shares of Other Corporations

        The chairman of the board, the president, any vice president, the
treasurer, the secretary or assistant secretary of this corporation, or any
other person authorized by the board of directors or the president or a vice
president, is authorized to vote, represent, and exercise on behalf of this
corporation all rights incident to any and all shares of any other corporation
or corporations standing in the name of this corporation. The authority granted
herein may be exercised either by such person directly or by any other person
authorized to do so by proxy or power of attorney duly executed by such person
having the authority.

                                  ARTICLE VIII

                                 GENERAL MATTERS

VIII.1 Checks

        From time to time, the board of directors shall determine by resolution
which person or persons may sign or endorse all checks, drafts, other orders for
payment of money, notes or other evidences of indebtedness that are issued in
the name of or payable to the corporation, and only the persons so authorized
shall sign or endorse those instruments.




VIII.2 Execution of Corporate Contracts and Instruments

        The board of directors, except as otherwise provided in these bylaws,
may authorize any officer or officers, or agent or agents, to enter into any
contract or execute any instrument in the name of and on behalf of the
corporation; such authority may be general or confined to specific instances.
Unless so authorized or ratified by the board of directors or within the agency
power of an officer, no officer, agent or employee shall have any power or
authority to bind the corporation by any contract or engagement or to pledge its
credit or to render it liable for any purpose or for any amount.

VIII.3 Stock Certificates; Partly Paid Shares

        The shares of a corporation shall be represented by certificates,
provided that the board of directors of the corporation may provide by
resolution or resolutions that some or all of any or all classes or series of
its stock shall be uncertificated shares. Any such resolution shall not apply to
shares represented by a certificate until such certificate is surrendered to the
corporation. Notwithstanding the adoption of such a resolution by the board of
directors, every holder of stock represented by certificates and upon request
every holder of uncertificated shares shall be entitled to have a certificate
signed by, or in the name of the corporation by the chairman or vice-chairman of
the board of directors, or the president or vice-president, and by the treasurer
or an assistant treasurer, or the secretary or an assistant secretary of such
corporation representing the number of shares registered in certificate form.
Any or all of the signatures on the certificate may be a facsimile. In case any
officer, transfer agent or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature
has been placed upon a certificate has ceased to be such officer, transfer agent
or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the
corporation with the same effect as if he were such officer, transfer agent or
registrar at the date of issue.

        The corporation may issue the whole or any part of its shares as partly
paid and subject to call for the remainder of the consideration to be paid
therefor. Upon the face or back of each stock certificate issued to represent
any such partly paid shares, upon the books and records of the corporation in
the case of uncertificated partly paid shares, the total amount of the
consideration to be paid therefor and the amount paid thereon shall be stated.
Upon the declaration of any dividend on fully paid shares, the corporation shall
declare a dividend upon partly paid shares of the same class, but only upon the
basis of the percentage of the consideration actually paid thereon.

VIII.4 Special Designation on Certificates

        If the corporation is authorized to issue more than one class of stock
or more than one series of any class, then the powers, the designations, the
preferences, and the relative, participating, optional or other special rights
of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or
restrictions of such preferences and/or rights shall be set forth in full or
summarized on the face or back of the certificate that the corporation shall
issue to represent such class or series of stock; provided, however, that,
except as otherwise provided in Section 202 of the General Corporation Law of
Delaware, in lieu of the foregoing requirements there may be set forth on the
face or back of the certificate that the corporation shall issue to represent
such class or series of stock a statement that the corporation will furnish
without charge to each stockholder who so requests the powers, the designations,
the preferences, and the relative, participating,




optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and
the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or
rights.

VIII.5 Lost Certificates

        Except as provided in this Section VIII.5, no new certificates for
shares shall be issued to replace a previously issued certificate unless the
latter is surrendered to the corporation and cancelled at the same time. The
corporation may issue a new certificate of stock or uncertificated shares in the
place of any certificate theretofore issued by it, alleged to have been lost,
stolen or destroyed, and the corporation may require the owner of the lost,
stolen or destroyed certificate, or his legal representative, to give the
corporation a bond sufficient to indemnify it against any claim that may be made
against it on account of the alleged loss, theft or destruction of any such
certificate or the issuance of such new certificate or uncertificated shares.

VIII.6 Construction; Definitions

        Unless the context requires otherwise, the general provisions, rules of
construction, and definitions in the Delaware General Corporation Law shall
govern the construction of these bylaws. Without limiting the generality of this
provision, the singular number includes the plural, the plural number includes
the singular, and the term "person" includes both a corporation and a natural
person.

VIII.7 Dividends

        The directors of the corporation, subject to any restrictions contained
in the certificate of incorporation, may declare and pay dividends upon the
shares of its capital stock pursuant to the General Corporation Law of Delaware.
Dividends may be paid in cash, in property, or in shares of the corporation's
capital stock.

        The directors of the corporation may set apart out of any of the funds
of the corporation available for dividends a reserve or reserves for any proper
purpose and may abolish any such reserve. Such purposes shall include but not be
limited to equalizing dividends, repairing or maintaining any property of the
corporation, and meeting contingencies.

VIII.8 Fiscal Year

        The fiscal year of the corporation shall be fixed by resolution of the
board of directors and may be changed by the board of directors.

VIII.9 Seal

        The corporation may have a seal, which may be altered at pleasure. The
seal may be used by causing it or a facsimile thereof to be impressed or affixed
or in any other manner reproduced.

VIII.10 Transfer of Stock

        Upon surrender to the corporation or the transfer agent of the
corporation of a certificate for shares duly endorsed or accompanied by proper
evidence of succession, assignation or authority to




transfer, it shall be the duty of the corporation to issue a new certificate to
the person entitled thereto, cancel the old certificate, and record the
transaction in its books.

VIII.11 Stock Transfer Agreements

        The corporation shall have power to enter into and perform any agreement
with any number of stockholders of any one or more classes of stock of the
corporation to restrict the transfer of shares of stock of the corporation of
any one or more classes owned by such stockholders in any manner not prohibited
by the General Corporation Law of Delaware.

VIII.12 Registered Stockholders

        The corporation shall be entitled to recognize the exclusive right of a
person registered on its books as the owner of shares to receive dividends and
to vote as such owner, shall be entitled to hold liable for calls and
assessments the person registered on its books as the owner of shares, and shall
not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such
share or shares on the part of another person, whether or not it shall have
express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise provided by the laws of
Delaware.

                                   ARTICLE IX

                                   AMENDMENTS

        The original or other bylaws of the corporation may be adopted, amended
or repealed by the stockholders entitled to vote; provided, however, that the
corporation may, in its certificate of incorporation, confer the power to adopt,
amend or repeal bylaws upon the directors. The fact that such power has been so
conferred upon the directors shall not divest the stockholders of the power, nor
limit their power to adopt, amend or repeal bylaws.

                                    ARTICLE X

                                   DISSOLUTION

        If it should be deemed advisable in the judgment of the board of
directors of the corporation that the corporation should be dissolved, the
board, after the adoption of a resolution to that effect by a majority of the
whole board at any meeting called for that purpose, shall cause notice to be
mailed to each stockholder entitled to vote thereon of the adoption of the
resolution and of a meeting of stockholders to take action upon the resolution.

        At the meeting a vote shall be taken for and against the proposed
dissolution. If a majority of the outstanding stock of the corporation entitled
to vote thereon votes for the proposed dissolution, then a certificate stating
that the dissolution has been authorized in accordance with the provisions of
Section 275 of the General Corporation Law of Delaware and setting forth the
names and residences of the directors and officers shall be executed,
acknowledged, and filed and shall become effective in accordance with Section
103 of the General Corporation Law of Delaware.




Upon such certificate's becoming effective in accordance with Section 103 of the
General Corporation Law of Delaware, the corporation shall be dissolved.

        Whenever all the stockholders entitled to vote on a dissolution consent
in writing, either in person or by duly authorized attorney, to a dissolution,
no meeting of directors or stockholders shall be necessary. The consent shall be
filed and shall become effective in accordance with Section 103 of the General
Corporation Law of Delaware. Upon such consent's becoming effective in
accordance with Section 103 of the General Corporation Law of Delaware, the
corporation shall be dissolved. If the consent is signed by an attorney, then
the original power of attorney or a photocopy thereof shall be attached to and
filed with the consent. The consent filed with the Secretary of State shall have
attached to it the affidavit of the secretary or some other officer of the
corporation stating that the consent has been signed by or on behalf of all the
stockholders entitled to vote on a dissolution; in addition, there shall be
attached to the consent a certification by the secretary or some other officer
of the corporation setting forth the names and residences of the directors and
officers of the corporation.

                                   ARTICLE XI

                                   CUSTODIAN

XI.1 Appointment of a Custodian in Certain Cases

        The Court of Chancery, upon application of any stockholder, may appoint
one or more persons to be custodians and, if the corporation is insolvent, to be
receivers, of and for the corporation when:

        (i) at any meeting held for the election of directors the stockholders
are so divided that they have failed to elect successors to directors whose
terms have expired or would have expired upon qualification of their successors;
or

        (ii) the business of the corporation is suffering or is threatened with
irreparable injury because the directors are so divided respecting the
management of the affairs of the corporation that the required vote for action
by the board of directors cannot be obtained and the stockholders are unable to
terminate this division; or

        (iii) the corporation has abandoned its business and has failed within a
reasonable time to take steps to dissolve, liquidate or distribute its assets.

XI.2 Duties of Custodian

        The custodian shall have all the powers and title of a receiver
appointed under Section 291 of the General Corporation Law of Delaware, but the
authority of the custodian shall be to continue the business of the corporation
and not to liquidate its affairs and distribute its assets, except when the
Court of Chancery otherwise orders and except in cases arising under Sections
226(a)(3) or 352(a)(2) of the General Corporation Law of Delaware.