Multimedia developers enter into business relationships with both individuals and businesses to help them create and distribute multimedia works. Most of these relationships result in "contracts" that have legal consequences. Most contracts don't have to be in writing to be enforceable.
The purpose of this summary is to provide an overview of the basic principles of contracts law.
What is a Contract?
A contract is a legally enforceable agreement between two or more parties. The core of most contracts is a set of mutual promises (in legal terminology, "consideration"). The promises made by the parties define the rights and obligations of the parties.
Contracts are enforceable in the courts. If one party meets its contractual obligations and the other party doesn't ("breaches the contract"), the nonbreaching party is entitled to receive relief through the courts.
Example: Developer promised to pay Graphic Designer $5000 for creating certain promotional materials for Developer's multimedia work. Graphic Designer created the materials and delivered them to Developer, as required in the contract. Developer admits that the materials meet the contract specifications. If Developer does not pay Graphic Designer, Graphic Designer can go to court and get a judgment against Developer for breach of contract.
Generally, the nonbreaching party's remedy for breach of contract is money damages that will put the nonbreaching party in the position it would have enjoyed if the contract had been performed. Under special circumstances, a court will order the breaching party to perform its contractual obligations.
Because contracts are enforceable, parties who enter into contracts can rely on contracts in structuring their business relationships.
Example: Developer entered into a contract with Composer, promising to pay Composer $4000 for composing a brief composition for Developer's multimedia work. Shortly after Composer started work on the piece for Developer - before Developer paid Composer any money - Composer got an offer from a movie studio to compose all the music for a movie and abandoned Developer's project. Developer had to pay another composer $6000 to do the work that Composer had contracted to do. Developer can sue Composer and obtain a judgment against Composer for $2000 (the amount that will result in Developer's obtaining the music for a net cost of $4000, the contract price).
In this country and most others, businesses have significant flexibility in setting the terms of their contracts. Contracts are, in a sense, private law created by the agreement of the parties. The rights and obligations of the parties are determined by the contract's terms, subject to limits imposed by relevant statutes.
Example: Developer promised to pay Composer $5000 to create music for Developer's multimedia training work. Composer created the music and delivered it to Developer, as required in the contract. Developer did not pay Composer, so Composer sued Developer for breach of contract. Developer's defense was "Composer did what she promised to do, but I never should have agreed to pay her $5000 for that work. $2000 is a fair price." The court will enforce Developer's promise to pay Composer $5000.
A deal done on a handshake - "You do X for me, and I'll pay you Y" - is a contract, because it is a legally enforceable agreement involving an exchange of promises. Most contracts are enforceable whether they are oral or written. Nonetheless, you should always have written contracts for all your business relationships.
There are several reasons why written contracts are better than oral contracts:
The process of writing down the contract's terms and signing the contract forces both parties to think about - and be precise about - the obligations they are undertaking. With an oral contract, it is too easy for both parties to say "yes" and then have second thoughts.
When the terms of a contract are written down, the parties are likely to create a more complete and thorough agreement than they would by oral agreement. A hastily made oral agreement is likely to have gaps that will have to be resolved later - when the relationship may have deteriorated.
With an oral contact, the parties may have different recollections of what they agreed on (just as two witnesses to a car accident will disagree over what happened). A written agreement eliminates disputes over who promised what.
Some types of contracts must be in writing to be enforced. The Copyright Act requires a copyright assignment or exclusive license to be in writing (see "Assignments" and "Licenses" in the Ownership of Copyright Law Summary ). State law requirements vary from state to state, but in most states, a contract for the sale of goods for $500 or more must be in writing.
If you have to go to court to enforce a contract or get damages, a written contract will mean less dispute about the contract's terms.
Who Can Enter Into a Contract?
Minors and the mentally incompetent lack the legal capacity to enter into contracts. All others are generally assumed to have full power to bind themselves by entering into contracts. In most states, the legal age for entering into contracts is 18. The test for mental capacity is whether the party understood the nature and consequences of the transaction in question.
Corporations have the power to enter into contracts. They make contracts through the acts of their agents, officers, and employees. Whether a particular employee has the power to bind the corporation to a contract is determined by an area of law called agency law or corporate law. If you doubt whether an individual with whom you are dealing has authority to enter into a contract with you, insist that the contract be reviewed and signed by the corporation's president.
A corporation has a separate legal existence from its founders, officers, and employees. Generally, the individuals associated with a corporation are not themselves responsible for the corporation's debts or liabilities, including liability for breach of contract.
Offer and Acceptance
A contract is formed when one party (the "offeror") makes an offer which is accepted by the other party (the "offeree"). An offer - a proposal to form a contract - can be as simple as the words, "I'll wash your car for you for $5." An acceptance - the offeree's assent to the terms of the offer - can be as simple as, "You've got a deal." Sometimes acceptance can be shown by conduct rather than by words.
When an offer has been made, no contract is formed until the offeree accepts the offer. When you make an offer, never assume that the offeree will accept the offer. Contractual liability is based on consent.
Example: Developer offered to pay Photographer $500 to use Photographer's photo in Developer's multimedia work. Photographer said, "Let me think about it." Developer, assuming that Photographer would accept the offer, went ahead and used the photo. Photographer then rejected Developer's offer. Developer has infringed Photographer's copyright by reproducing the photograph for use in the multimedia work. Developer must now either remove the photo from the multimedia work before distributing the work (or showing the work to others) or reach an agreement with Photographer.
When you are an offeree, do not assume that an offer will remain open indefinitely. In general, an offeror is free to revoke the offer at any time before acceptance by the offeree. Once the offeror terminates the offer, the offeree no longer has the legal power to accept the offer and form a contract.
Example: Animator offered his services to Developer, who said, "I'll get back to you." Developer then contracted with Client to quickly produce a multimedia work involving animation (making the assumption that Animator was still available to do the animation work). Before Developer could tell Animator that he accepted Animator's offer, Animator sent Developer a fax that said, "Leaving for Mexico. I'll call when I get back." Developer and Animator did not have a contract. Developer should not have assumed, in entering into the contract with Client, that Animator was still available.
When you are the offeree, do not start contract performance before notifying the offeror of your acceptance. Prior to your acceptance, there is no contract. An offer can be accepted by starting performance if the offer itself invites such acceptance, but this type of offer is rare.
Example: Big Co. offered to pay Developer $5000 to create a corporate presentation multimedia work for Big Co. Before Developer's president notified Big Co. that Developer accepted the offer, Big Co. sent Developer a fax that said, "We've changed our minds. Due to budget cuts at Big Co., we can't afford to do the multimedia project." In the meantime, Developer's staff had begun preliminary work on the project. Developer and Big Co. did not have a contract, so Developer has no legal recourse against Big Co. for loss of the deal or for the costs of the preliminary work.
Until an offer is accepted, the offeror is free - unless it has promised to hold the offer open - to revoke the offer.
Example: On June 1, Big Co. offered to hire Developer to create an interactive training work for Big Co. On June 4 (before acceptance by Developer), Big Co. notified Developer that it was giving the contract to Developer's competitor. Big Co. terminated the offer to Developer. Developer has no legal recourse against Big Co.
If you need time to make up your mind before accepting an offer, get the offeror to give you a written promise to hold the offer open for a few days. That will give you time to decide whether to accept.
Don't reject an offer and then try to accept it. Once an offeree rejects an offer, the offer dies and the offeree's legal power to accept the offer and form a contract terminates.
Example: Publisher offered to buy all rights in Developer's multimedia work for $100,000. Developer, hoping for a better offer, said no. Then Developer realized that Publisher's offer was the best Developer could do. Developer called Publisher and said, "I accept your offer." Because the offer was no longer open, Developer cannot form a contract by trying to accept the offer.
Except for the simplest deals, it generally takes more than one round of negotiations to form a contract. Often, the offeree responds to the initial offer with a counter-offer. A counter-offer is an offer made by an offeree on the same subject matter as the original offer, but proposing a different bargain than the original offer. A counter-offer, like an outright rejection, terminates the offeree's legal power of acceptance.
Example: Publisher offered to buy all rights in Developer's multimedia work for $100,000. Developer responded by saying, "I'll give you the right to distribute the work in the U.S. for $100,000." Developer's response to the offer was a counter-offer. Developer no longer has the legal power to form a contract based on Publisher's offer to purchase all rights in the work.
Consideration, in legal terminology, is what one party to a contract will get from the other party in return for performing contract obligations.
Example: Developer promised to pay Artist $500 if Artist would let Developer use one of Artist's drawings in Developer's multimedia work. The consideration for Developer's promise to pay Artist $500 is Artist's promise to let Developer use the drawing. The consideration for Artist's promise to let Developer use the drawing is Developer's promise to pay Artist $500.
According to traditional legal doctrine, if one party makes a promise and the other party offers nothing in exchange for that promise, the promise is unenforceable. Such a promise is known as a "gratuitous promise." Gratuitous promises are said to be "unenforceable for lack of consideration."
Example: John told Sam, "When I buy a new car, I'll give you my truck." John bought a new car but did not give Sam the truck. According to traditional legal doctrine, John's promise to give Sam the truck is an unenforceable gratuitous promise. Sam gave nothing to John in exchange for John's promise to give Sam the truck.
In some states, a gratuitous promise can be enforced if the party to whom the promise was made relied on the promise. Other states no longer require consideration for certain types of promises.
Lack of consideration is rarely a problem for promises made in the context of business relationships. In most business contracts, there is consideration for both parties ("mutual consideration", in legal terminology).
The lack of consideration problem can arise in the context of amendments to contracts, however. Also, in some states, a promise to hold an offer open (see "Offer and Acceptance," earlier in of this chapter) is unenforceable unless the offeree gives the offeror consideration (pays the offeror money) to keep the offer open.
Typical Contract Provisions
Many contracts include special types of provisions. We'll discuss these common types of provisions in the next subsections.
Duties and Obligations
The duties and obligations section of a contract is a detailed description of the duties and obligations of the parties and the deadlines for performance. If one party's obligation is to create a multimedia work, software, or content for a multimedia work, detailed specifications should be stated.
Representations and Warranties
A warranty is a legal promise that certain facts are true. Typical representations or warranties in contracts concern such matters as ownership of the contract's subject matter (for example, real estate) and the right to sell or assign the subject matter. In multimedia industry contracts, warranties of ownership of intellectual property rights and noninfringement of third parties' intellectual property rights are common.
For contracts involving the sale of goods, certain warranties are implied under state law unless specifically disclaimed by the parties.
These clauses ensure that either or both parties have the right to terminate the contract under certain circumstances. Generally, termination clauses describe breach of contract events that trigger the right to terminate the contract (for example, nonpayment of royalties). Termination clauses also describe the methods of giving notice of exercise of the termination right, and whether the breaching party must be given an opportunity to cure the breach before the other party can terminate the contract.
These clauses state what rights the nonbreaching party has if the other party breaches the contract. In contracts for the sale of goods, remedy clauses are usually designed to limit the seller's liability for damages.
An arbitration clause states that disputes arising under the contract must be settled through arbitration rather than through court litigation. Such clauses generally include the name of the organization that will conduct the arbitration (the American Arbitration Association, for example), the city in which the arbitration will be held, and the method for selecting arbitrators. Arbitration is discussed in "Arbitration" in the U.S. Legal System summary.
Merger clauses state that the written document contains the entire understanding of the parties. The purpose of merger clauses is to ensure that evidence outside the written document will not be admissible in court to contradict or supplement the terms of the written agreement.
Tips for Contracts
The contract formation process varies widely, from contracts formed quickly in face-to-face meetings to contracts formed after teams of attorneys have spent months in negotiations. Contracts covering specific multimedia industry relationships are covered elsewhere in this book: Development agreements are covered in Chapter 6, contracts with employees are covered in Chapter 7, contracts with independent contractors are covered in Chapter 8, and distribution agreements are covered in Chapter 18. (The publisher's perspective on distribution agreements is covered in Chapter 19.)
Here are some general tips for all types of contracts:
Write it down
All contracts should take the form of a written document signed by both parties. You do not have to hire an attorney to create a written contract. If you reach an agreement over the phone or in a meeting, write the agreement as soon as possible and have the other party sign the written memorandum. If you are making a written offer, you may want to make your offer in the form of a letter, with a space at the end for the offeree to indicate acceptance by signing.
Make sure you are comfortable with your obligations
If a term - for example, a deadline - makes you uneasy, make a counter-offer that substitutes a term with which you are more comfortable. Do not assume that the other party will excuse you from strict compliance and do not rely on the other party's oral assurances that it will not insist on strict compliance.
Remember Murphy's Law
Before you sign a contract, consider what could go wrong or what could make performance of your obligations difficult or expensive. If the actual performance is more difficult or expensive than you anticipated, that is not a valid excuse for not performing. Enter into a contract only if you believe that you can meet your obligations.
Don't leave anything out
Accurately cover all aspects of your understanding with the other party. If the other party wrote the agreement based on an oral understanding reached earlier, make certain that the written terms match the terms of your oral agreement. Don't leave points out of the written document, even if the other party says, "We don't need to put that in writing."
Cover all options
Cover all options, consequences, and possibilities. You should not fail to address an issue because it is "sensitive." Deal with the sensitive issue during the negotiations. Make sure that your contract includes a merger clause (see "Typical Contracts Provisions," earlier in this chapter) to avoid disputes about whether proposals made during negotiations but not included in the final written agreement are part of your contract.
Don't use unclear language or try to sound like a lawyer
If you don't understand exactly what the other party is expecting you to do, don't try to camouflage the lack of understanding by using vague language. Vague language leads to misunderstandings, disputes, and lawsuits. Use simple language that accurately expresses your agreement with the other party. Don't try to sound like a lawyer, and don't complicate things unnecessarily.
Define any ambiguous terms
There's a classic contracts case in which one party contracted to sell chickens to the other party. The seller thought "chicken" meant chicken of any age, including old and tough chickens. The buyer assumed "chicken" meant tender young chickens suitable for frying. The seller shipped old chickens, and the buyer screamed "breach". To avoid such misunderstandings, define any terms that may be ambiguous.
Be careful using "terms of art"
Terms of art are words with specific meaning in the law. "Assignment," for example, has a number of meanings in the English language. In intellectual property law, "assignment" means a transfer of ownership of intellectual property (see "Assignments" in the Copyright Law Summary). Use "assignment" in your contracts when you mean transfer of ownership of intellectual property. Don't use the word in its other meanings or you will create confusion.
Use Terms Consistently
When you write contracts, you are creating your own "law." Legal writing is not creative writing. Don't use "royalty" in one paragraph, "license fee" in a second paragraph, and "use fee" in a third paragraph. Pick one term and stay with it throughout the contract.