By-Laws - LegalOpinion.com
A NEVADA CORPORATION
The principal office of the corporation in the State of Nevada shall be
located at 774 Mays Blvd. Suite 10, Incline Village NV 89451. The corporation
may have such other offices, either within or without the State of incorporation
as the board of directors may designate or as the business of the corporation
may from time to time require.
Section 1. Place of Meetings
The directors may designate any place, either within or without the State
unless otherwise prescribed by statute, as the place of meeting for any annual
meeting or for any special meeting called by the directors. A waiver of notice
signed by all stockholders entitled to vote at a meeting may designate any
place, either within or without the State unless otherwise prescribed by
statute, as the place for holding such meeting. If no designation is made, or if
a special meeting be otherwise called, the place of meeting shall be the
principal office of the corporation.
Section 2. Annual Meetings
The time and date for the annual meeting of the shareholders shall be set
by the Board of Directors of the Corporation, at which time the shareholders
shall elect a Board of Directors and transact any other proper business. Unless
the Board of Directors shall determine otherwise, the annual meeting of the
shareholders shall be held on the second Monday of March in each year, if not a
holiday, at Ten o'clock A.M., at which time the shareholders shall elect a Board
of Directors and transact any other proper business. If this date falls on a
holiday, then the meeting shall be held on the following business day at the
Section 3. Special Meetings
Special meetings of the shareholders may be called by the President, the
Board of Directors, by the holders of at least ten percent of all the shares
entitled to vote at the proposed special meeting, or such other person or
persons as may be authorized in the Articles of Incorporation.
Section 4. Notices of Meetings
Written or printed notice stating the place, day and hour of the meeting
and, in the case of a special meeting, the purpose or purposes for which the
meeting is called, shall be delivered not less than ten (10) days nor more than
sixty (60) days before the date of the meeting, either personally or by mail, by
the direction of the president, or secretary, or the
officer or persons calling the meeting. If mailed, such notice shall be deemed
to be delivered when deposited in the United States mail, addressed to the
stockholder at his address as it appears on the stock transfer books of the
corporation, with postage thereon prepaid. Closing of Transfer Books or Fixing
(a) For the purpose of determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to
vote at any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, or stockholders
entitled to receive payment of any dividend, or in order to make a determination
of stockholders for any other proper purpose, the directors of the corporation
may provide that the stock transfer books shall be closed for a stated period
but not to exceed, in any case twenty (20) days. If the stock transfer books be
closed for the purpose of determining stockholders entitled to notice or to vote
at a meeting of stockholders, such books shall be closed for at least twenty
(20) days immediately preceding such meeting.
(b) In lieu of closing the stock transfer books, the directors may
prescribe a day not more than sixty (60) days before the holding of any such
meeting as the day as of which stockholders entitled to notice of the and to
vote at such meeting must be determined. Only stockholders of record on that day
are entitled to notice or to vote at such meeting
(c) The directors may adopt a resolution prescribing a date upon which the
stockholders of record are entitled to give written consent to actions in lieu
of meeting. The date prescribed by the directors may not precede nor be more
than ten (10) days after the date the resolution is adopted by directors.
Section 5. Voting List.
The officer or agent having charge of the stock transfer books for the
shares of the corporation shall make, at least ten (10) days before each meeting
of stockholders, a complete list of stockholders entitled to vote at such
meeting, or any adjournment thereof, arranged in alphabetical order, with the
address of and number of shares held by each, which list, for a period of ten
(10) days prior to such meeting, shall be kept on file at the principal office
of the corporation and shall be subject to inspection by any stockholder at any
time during usual business hours. Such list shall also be produced and kept open
at the time and place of the meeting and shall be subject to the inspection of
any stockholder during the whole time of the meeting. The original stock
transfer book shall be prima facie evidence as to who are the stockholders
entitled to examine such list or transfer books or to vote at the meeting of
Section 6. Quorum.
At any meeting of stockholders, a majority of fifty percent plus one vote,
of the outstanding shares of the corporation entitled to vote, represented in
person or by proxy, shall constitute a quorum at a meeting of stockholders. If
less than said number of the outstanding shares are represented at a meeting, a
majority of the outstanding shares so represented may adjourn the meeting from
time to time without further notice. At such adjourned meeting at which a quorum
shall be present or represented, any business may be transacted which might have
been transacted at the meeting originally notified. The stockholders present at
a duly organized meeting may continue to transact business until adjournment,
notwithstanding the withdrawal of enough stockholders to leave less than a
Section 7. Proxies.
At all meetings of the stockholders, a stockholder may vote by proxy
executed in writing by the stockholder or by his duly authorized attorney in
fact. Such proxy shall be filed with the secretary of the corporation before or
at the time of the meeting. Such proxies may be deposited by electronic
Section 8. Voting.
Each stockholder entitled to vote in accordance with the terms and
provisions of the certificate of incorporation and these by-laws shall be
entitled to one vote, in person or by proxy, for each share of stock entitled to
vote held by such shareholder. Upon the demand of any stockholder, the vote for
directors and upon any question before the meeting shall be by ballot. All
elections for directors shall be decided by plurality vote; all other questions
shall be decided by majority vote except as otherwise provided by the
Certificate of Incorporation or the laws of Nevada.
Section 9. Order of Business.
The order of business at all meetings of the stockholders, shall be as
a. Roll Call.
b. Proof of notice of meeting or waiver of notice.
c. Reading of minutes of preceding meeting.
d. Reports of Officers.
e. Reports of Committees.
f. Election of Directors.
g. Unfinished Business.
h. New Business.
Section 10. Informal Action by Stockholders.
Unless otherwise provided by law, any action required to be taken, or any
other action which may be taken, at a meeting of the stockholders, may be taken
without a meeting if a consent in writing, setting forth the action so taken,
shall be signed by all of the stockholders entitled to vote with respect to the
subject matter thereof. Unless otherwise provided by law, any action required to
be taken, or any other action which may be taken, at a meeting of the
stockholders, may be taken without a meeting if a consent in writing, setting
forth the action so taken, shall be signed by a Majority of all of the
stockholders entitled to vote with respect to the subject matter thereof at any
regular meeting called on notice, and if written notice to all shareholders is
promptly given of all action so taken.
Section 11. Books and Records.
The Books, Accounts, and Records of the corporation, except as may be
otherwise required by the laws of the State of Nevada, may be kept outside of
the State of Nevada, at such place or places as the Board of Directors may from
time to time appoint. The Board of Directors shall determine whether and to what
extent the accounts and the books of the corporation, or any of them, other than
the stock ledgers, shall be open to the inspection of the stockholders, and no
stockholder shall have any right to inspect any account or book or document of
this Corporation, except as conferred by law or by resolution of the
stockholders or directors. In the event such right of inspection is granted to
the Stockholder(s) all fees associated with such inspection shall be the sole
expense of the Stockholder(s) demanding the
inspection. No book, account, or record of the Corporation may be inspected
without the legal counsel and the accountants of the Corporation being present.
The fees charged by legal counsel and accountants to attend such inspections
shall be paid for by the Stockholder demanding the inspection.
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Section 1. General Powers.
The business and affairs of the corporation shall be managed by its board
of directors. The directors shall in all cases act as a board, and they may
adopt such rules and regulations for the conduct of their meetings and the
management of the corporation, as they may deem proper, not inconsistent with
these by-laws and the laws of this State.
Section 2. Number, Tenure, and Qualifications.
The number of directors of the corporation shall be a minimum of one (l)
and a maximum of nine (7), or such other number as may be provided in the
Articles of Incorporation, or amendment thereof. Each director shall hold office
until the next annual meeting of stockholders and until his successor shall have
been elected and qualified.
Section 3. Regular Meetings.
A regular meeting of the directors, shall be held without other notice than
this by-law immediately after, and at the same place as, the annual meeting of
stockholders. The directors may provide, by resolution, the time and place for
holding of additional regular meetings without other notice than such
Section 4. Special Meetings.
Special meetings of the directors may be called by or at the request of the
president or any two directors. The person or persons authorized to call special
meetings of the directors may fix the place for holding any special meeting of
the directors called by them.
Section 5. Notice.
Notice of any special meeting shall be given at least one day previously
thereto by written notice delivered personally, or by telegram or mailed to each
director at his business address. If mailed, such notice shall be deemed to be
delivered when deposited in the United States mail so addressed, with postage
thereon prepaid. The attendance of a director at a meeting shall constitute a
waiver of notice of such meeting, except where a director attends a meeting for
the express purpose of objecting to the transaction of any business because the
meeting is not lawfully called or convened.
Section 6. Quorum.
At any meeting of the directors fifty (50) percent shall constitute a
quorum for the transaction of business, but if less than said number is present
at a meeting, a majority of the directors present may adjourn the meeting from
time to time without further notice.
Section 7. Manner of Acting.
The act of the majority of the directors present at a meeting at which a
quorum is present shall be the act of the directors.
Section 8. Newly Created Directorships and Vacancies.
Newly created directorships resulting from an increase in the number of
directors and vacancies occurring in the board for any reason except the removal
of directors without cause may be filled by a vote of the majority of the
directors then in office, although less than a quorum exists. Vacancies
occurring by reason of the removal of directors without cause shall be filled by
vote of the stockholders. A director elected to fill a vacancy caused by
resignation, death or removal shall be elected to hold office for the unexpired
term of his predecessor.
Section 9. Removal of Directors.
Any or all of the directors may be removed for cause by vote of the
stockholders or by action of the board. Directors may be removed without cause
only by vote of the stockholders.
Section 10. Resignation.
A director may resign at any time by giving written notice to the board,
the president or the secretary of the corporation. Unless otherwise specified in
the notice, the resignation shall take effect upon receipt thereof by the board
or such officer, and the acceptance of the resignation shall not be necessary to
make it effective.
Section 11. Compensation.
No compensation shall be paid to directors, as such, for their services,
but by resolution of the board a fixed sum and expenses for actual attendance at
each regular or special meeting of the board may be authorized. Nothing herein
contained shall be construed to preclude any director from serving the
corporation in any other capacity and receiving compensation therefor.
Section 12. Executive and Other Committees.
The board, by resolution, may designate from among its members an executive
committee and other committees, each consisting of one (l) or more directors.
Each such committee shall serve at the pleasure of the board.
Section 1. Number.
The officers of the corporation shall be the president, a secretary and a
treasurer, each of whom shall be elected by the directors. Such other officers
and assistant officers as may be deemed necessary may be elected or appointed by
Section 2. Election and Term of Office.
The officers of the corporation to be elected by the directors shall be
elected annually at the first meeting of the directors held after each annual
meeting of the stockholders. Each officer shall hold office until his successor
shall have been duly elected and shall have qualified or until his death or
until he shall resign or shall have been removed in the manner hereinafter
provided. In the event that no election of officers be held by the directors at
that time, the existing officers shall be deemed to have been confirmed in
office by the directors.
Section 3. Removal.
Any officer or agent elected or appointed by the directors may be removed
by the directors whenever in their judgement the best interest of the
corporation would be served thereby, but such removal shall be without prejudice
to contract rights, if any, of the person so removed.
Section 4. Vacancies.
A vacancy in any office because of death, resignation, removal,
disqualification or otherwise, may be filled by the directors for the unexpired
portion of the term.
Section 5. President.
The president shall be the principal executive officer of the corporation
and, subject to the control of the directors, shall in general supervise and
control all of the business and affairs of the corporation. He shall, when
present, preside at all meetings of the stockholders and of the directors. He
may sign, with the secretary or any other proper officer of the corporation
thereunto authorized by the directors, certificates for shares of the
corporation, any deeds, mortgages, bonds, contracts, or other instruments which
the directors have authorized to be executed, except in cases where the
directors or by these by-laws to some other officer or agent of the corporation,
or shall be required by law to be otherwise signed or executed; and in general
shall perform all duties incident to the office of president and such other
duties as may be prescribed by the directors from time to time.
Section 6. Chairman of the Board.
In the absence of the president or in the event of his death, inability or
refusal to act, the chairman of the board of directors shall perform the duties
of the president, and when so acting, shall have all the powers of and be
subject to all the restrictions upon the president. The chairman of the board of
directors shall perform such other duties as from time to time may be assigned
to him by the directors.
Section 7. Secretary.
The secretary shall keep the minutes of the stockholders' and of the
directors' meetings in one or more books provided for that purpose, see that all
notices are duly given in accordance with the provisions of these by-laws or as
required, be custodian of the corporate records and of the seal of the
corporation and keep a register of the post office address of each stockholder
which shall be furnished to the secretary by such stockholder, have general
charge of the stock transfer books of the corporation and in general perform all
the duties incident to the office of secretary and such other duties as from
time to time may be assigned to him by the president or by the directors.
Section 8. Treasurer.
If required by the directors, the treasurer shall give a bond for the
faithful discharge of his duties in such sum and with such surety or sureties as
the directors shall determine. He shall have charge and custody of and be
responsible for all funds and securities of the corporation; receive and give
receipts for moneys due and payable to the corporation from any source
whatsoever, and deposit all such moneys in the name of the corporation in such
banks, trust companies or other depositories as shall be selected in accordance
with these by- laws and in general perform all of the duties incident to the
office of treasurer and such other duties as from time to time may be assigned
to him by the president or by the directors.
Section 9. Salaries.
The salaries of the officers shall be fixed from time to time by the
directors and no officer shall be prevented from receiving such salary by reason
of fact that he is also a director of the corporation.
CONTRACTS, LOANS, CHECKS AND DEPOSITS
Section 1. Contracts.
The directors may authorize any officer or officers, agent or agents to
enter into any contract or execute and deliver any instrument in the name of and
on behalf of the corporation, and such authority may be general or confined to
Section 2. Loans.
No loans shall be contracted on behalf of the corporation and no evidences
of indebtedness shall be issued in its name unless authorized by a resolution of
the directors. Such authority may be general or confined to specific instances.
Section 3. Checks, Drafts, etc.
All checks, drafts or other orders for the payment of money, notes or other
evidences of indebtedness issued in the name of the corporation, shall be signed
by such officer or officers, agent or agents of the corporation and in such
manner as shall from time to time be determined by resolution of the directors.
Section 4. Deposits.
All funds of the corporation not otherwise employed shall be deposited from
time to time to the credit of the corporation in such banks, trust companies or
other depositories as the directors may select.
The fiscal year of the corporation shall begin on the lst day of January in
each year, or on such other day as the Board of Directors shall fix.
The directors may from time to time declare, and the corporation may pay,
dividends on its outstanding shares in the manner and upon the terms and
conditions provided by law.
The directors may provide a corporate seal which shall have inscribed
thereon the name of the corporation, the state of incorporation, year of
incorporation and the words, 'Corporate Seal'.
WAIVER OF NOTICE
Unless otherwise provided by law, whenever any notice is required to be
given to any stockholder or director of the corporation under the provisions of
these by-laws or under the provisions of the articles of incorporation, a waiver
thereof in writing, signed by the person or persons entitled to such notice,
whether before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent to
the giving of such notice.
These by-laws may be altered, amended or repealed and new by-laws may be
adopted in the same manner as their adoption, by the Board of Directors if so
adopted; by a vote of the stockholders representing a majority of all the shares
issued and outstanding, if so adopted or adopted by the Board of Directors; or,
in any case, at any annual stockholders' meeting or at any special stockholders'
meeting when the proposed amendment has been set out in the notice of such
The Secretary of the Corporation hereby certifies that the foregoing is a
true and correct copy of the By-Laws of the Corporation named in the title
thereto and that such By-Laws were duly adopted by the Board of Directors of
said Corporation on the date set forth below.
Executed, and Corporate Seal affixed, this day of October 15, 1999.
/s/ RAE MEIER