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E-Signature Laws Click Into Action

The Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (ESIGN) is a statutory milestone on the road to a nationally consistent legal framework for electronic commerce. It joins the proposed Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (UETA), versions of which have been adopted in 47 states.

ESIGN and UETA apply to transactions among individuals, businesses, and governments; ESIGN only applies to transactions "in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce". Both statutes provide - with numerous exceptions - that electronic contracts, signatures and other transactional records "may not be denied legal effect, validity, or enforceability" solely because they are in electronic form.

What Is An Electronic Signature?

An electronic signature is an "electronic sound, symbol, or process, attached to or logically associated with a contract or other record and executed or adopted by a person with the intent to sign the record." As UETA's official comments make clear, "No specific technology need be used ...[T]he critical element is the intention to execute or adopt the sound or symbol or process for the purpose of signing the related record." Consequently a valid electronic signature does not need to be an encrypted signature such as those created by PGP or other digital encryption programs. It can be a webpage clickthrough ("I ACCEPT"), a sound ("OK!"), typed letters at the bottom of an email message, a fingerprint, a DNA sequence, or something as yet unimagined, so long as it is intended as a signature by the signer. Even the act of a nonhuman electronic agent empowered by a party may be sufficient to bind the party. However, the more stringent and secure the signing process is, the more difficult it will be for the purported signer to deny or evade responsibility.

Do I Have To Accept Electronic Signing?

Neither ESIGN nor UETA force anyone in the private sector to go electronic. It is up to the parties to decide how to transact their business. Section 101(b)(2) of ESIGN states, "[t]his title does not ... require any person to agree to use or accept electronic records or electronic signatures ... ". UETA similarly says, "This Act applies only to transactions between parties each of which has agreed to conduct transactions by electronic means. "

What Is An Electronic Record?

An electronic record is any record created, generated, sent, communicated, received, or stored by electronic means. Electronic is defined as "relating to technology having electrical, digital, wireless, optical, electromagnetic, or similar capabilities. The definition is very broad and demonstrates the scope of consensual transactions the UETA was designed to impact.

What Implications Does ESIGN Have For Recordkeeping?

Under Section 101(c) of ESIGN, if a federal or state law or regulation imposes a recordkeeping requirement with respect to a covered transaction, "that requirement is met by retaining an electronic record of the information ... that (A) accurately reflects the information set forth in the [original] record; and (B) remains accessible to all persons who are entitled to access ... for the [required] period ... in a form that is capable of being accurately reproduced for later reference ..." This provision applies even if the statute or regulation purports to require retention of the original, which could make a substantial difference in companies' recordkeeping practices created in response to past governmental requirements. The accuracy requirement, however, presents a variety of authentication and security issues which will require careful planning before roomfuls of paper records go to the shredder.

What Exceptions Exist?

As with many statutes crafted through political compromise, ESIGN is riddled with exceptions and special provisions, only a subset of which can be addressed in this Update. Similar exceptions, and others, exist in many state versions of UETA. The principal exceptions to the primary section of ESIGN are:

  • Documents governed by estate and family law statutes and regulations, such as wills and trusts, and adoption, custody, or divorce papers;
  • Documents governed by the Uniform Commercial Code (other than Code articles governing sales and leases and excepting transferable notes related to loans secured by real property, which have a specific criteria set forth in Title II), i.e., commercial paper; negotiable instruments, security agreements, etc.;
  • Court documents;
  • Notices of utility shutoffs, mortgage defaults and foreclosures, cancellation of health/life insurance benefits, product recalls, and similar communications from hardhearted companies to consumers; and
  • Hazardous waste manifests and similar documents.

In addition, Section 101(c) imposes extensive additional consent requirements in consumer transactions. If a law requires that certain information be provided to a consumer in writing (e.g. the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act or state consumer protection statutes), an electronic substitute is allowed only if the consumer expressly consents after receiving a conspicuous disclosure satisfying the detailed requirements of Section 101(c)(1).

What Provisions Apply To Mortgage Notes?

Also, ESIGN specifically addresses transferable records. A transferable record is an electronic promissory note relating to a loan secured by real property, whose issuer has expressly agreed that it is a transferable record. Section 201(c) imposes more stringent technical requirements than the basic Act to protect the integrity of these negotiable instruments: there must be a single authoritative copy which is "unique, identifiable, and ... unalterable", and which uniquely identifies the single holder of the authoritative copy. The person in control of that copy is a holder under the UCC, potentially a holder in due course, with associated rights and defenses.


ESIGN and UETA eliminate much of the legal uncertainty regarding the use of electronic signatures and records, but their full value will not be realized until the technology and infrastructure for creating and authenticating digital signatures becomes more standardized and easier to use. In the meantime, however, people and entities should consider how these technologies can expand the ways they do business.

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